Life of Imam Hassan bin Ali (A.S)
Graves of Imam Hasan bin Ali (AS), Imam Ali bin Hussain (AS), Imam Muhammad Baqir (AS), Imam Jafir Sadiq (AS) and Hazrat Abbas bin Muttalib in Janat`ul Baqi, Madina
Provided by Zahid Abbas Jaffery (www.shianews.com)
On the 15th day of the holy month of Ramazan, 3rd A.H, the first son of Imam Ali(A.S) and Hazrat Zahra (A.S) and grandson of prophet Muhammad (saww) was born.
The Kunyat of Imam Hasan (A.S) was Abu Mohammad.
His laqab (title) has been narrated as Sayyed, Sebt, Hujjat,Taqi, Zaki, Mujtaba, Zahed, Amir and Wali.
The growth and development of Imam Hasan (A.S) was in the company of the Holy – Prophet of Islam (S.A) for seven years. And for thisty years, he was in the company of his holy father, Hazrat Amiral Momeneen Ali (A.S).
After the Shahadat ( martyrdom) of Imam Ali (A.S) in the year 40 A.H, Imam Hasan (A.S) undertook the responsibility of the reins of the government as per the request of the Muslims.
He sent his personnel’s to different cities as the Bani Ummayya harboured deep enmity and vendetta against Bani Hashim. They conspired and hatched several plots to snatch the Khilafat from Imam Hassan (A.S) and to take over the control of the Muslim affairs for themselves. Thus, Muawiya sent several spies and secret agents to several cities so as to lay the ground for weakening the government of Imam Hasan (A.S)
He prepared an army to assault Iraq. After being informed of the happenings, Imam Hasan (A.S) sent many warnings to Muawiya. Then he called the Muslims to prepare themselves in the combat against Muawiya. With a mighty army, he prepared himself for the battle.
Before facing the army of Imam Hasan (A.S), Muawiya decided to resort to trick and deceit.
On one hand, he falsely implicated Imam Hasan (A.S) and spread the rumour amongst the people about the peace treaty with him. Muawiya resorted to this trick so as to weaken the morality of the army of Imam (A.S).
On the other hand, he resorted to bribery, debauchery and promising big government post, he seduced the top army officers of Imam Hassan (A.S) in to submission.
In this way, they joined the ranks of the army of Moawiya one after the other.
Disloyalty and treason had penetrated in the army and companions of Imam Hassan (A.S). They devoured his tents, unfastened his button, pulled the carpet from beneath him and slit his thigh leg with a dagger.
Seeing his army resorting to such dubious methods and his companions being in disturbed and agitated mood, Imam Hassan (A.S) thought it advisable that for stopping the disunion and the killing of the Shias, he accept the proposal of the peace treaty with Muawiya but with special conditions.
As per the writings of Ibne Khalka, the peace treaty was concluded on 25 Rabiul Awwal 41 A.H.
The most important conditions of the peace treaty were:
Muawiya would not call himself as Amir – ul – Momeneen ( leader of the Believers)
From then onwards, Imam Ali (A,S) would not be cursed or abused in bad language.
The life, wealth and chastity of the female members of shias would be secured and protected.
All the rights and privileges of the Shiahs would be granted to them.
Moawiya would not appoint anybody as his successor.
As can be seen from the conditions of the peace treaty, Imam Hassan (A.S) while showing Muawiya as a usurper and tyrant allayed the flames of disunity; saved the Islamic society from total annihilation and safeguarded the rights of the Shias.
It can be rightly said that the biggest achievement of the peace treaty was the discernment of the truth from falsehood. Neither truth could be introduced as lowliness and abject nor falsehood could be pretended to be right.
The holy Imam, through his behaviour and action made the people realise that Muawiya is the pillar of falsehood, deceit and treachery while the right of khilafat belonged to the true Awsiya of the Holy Prophet of Islam (saww). They do not want to rule over the people by resorting to force, bribery and deceit. The same matter was pursued during the events of Kerbala.
After the signing of the peace treaty, some of the people found fault with this important and wise work of Imam Hassan (A.S). They slandered him and used abusive language against his holy personality. It was as if they had ignored his divine gifted position and unmistakable personality.
In their reply , Imam Hassan (A.S) said;
“Am I not the Hujat of the Almighty, being his remembrance upon his creatures. Did not the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A) said, “Hassan and Hussain are two Imams, whether they are sitting or standing? If I had not done this work ( signed the peace treaty), nobody from amongst the shias would have remained in this world and every body would have been killed and annihilated.”
After turning over the apparent khilafat to Muawiya. Imam Hassan (A.S) left Kufa for his home land in Medina. He started to propagate the Divine Knowledge and spread it amongst the Muslims. But Muawiya did not stop from resorting to conspiracy and intrigue from the beginning, he started to break the articles of the peace treaty.
To gain certainty that the Khilafat will remain in his house hold, Muawiya hatched a plot to kill Imam Hassan (A.S). To accomplish his devilish plan, Muawiya poisoned the son of Hazrat Zahra (SA) on four occasions.
On the fourth occasion, he made Imam Hassan (A.S) drink poison and was effective in the Shahadat of Imam Hassan (A.S).
Based on this treacherous action, Imam (A.S) suffered heavy bleeding and the colour of his face changed and he said, “On several occasions , poison was given to me, but I had never suffered such hardship as on this occasion.”
Jonada says; “I went to visit Imam (A.S) during his illness which led to his death. I saw a tub in front of him. Due to the poison given by Muawiya (may the Almighty curse him) he was spitting blood in it . I said to Imam (AS), “O my Maula! Why don’t you cure yourself?”
Imam Hasan (AS) replied, “O Abdullah! How can I cure death” I said, “we are from the Almighty and to him is our Return.”
Imam Hasan (AS) attained shahadat due to poison at the age of 47.
After reciting Namaz on him, his holy body was taken towards the Haram/Roza (shrine)of the Holy Prophet of Islam (saww) to bury him there.
Tholat Ibn Malek says, “There was such a tremendous surge of heavy crowd accompanying his dead body towards his grave that if the needle would be thrown on the ground, it would hit the men (instead of striking the ground).
When the Bani Umayyad heard about the events and the huge crowd accompanying the holy body of the son of Hazrat Syeda Fatima Zahra (SA), they prevented from getting him buried near the grave of his holy grand father.
Ibn shahr Ashoob writes; they showered arrows at his dead body. Seventy sticks of arrows were removed from the holy body of Imam Hasan (AS).
As per the will of Imam Hassan (A.S) . Imam Hussain (A.S) refrained from fighting with them. He took the holy body of his brother towards Baqi and buried him there.
There is a difference of opinion about the day of the Shahadat of Imam Hasan (AS).
Shaikh Mufid and Kafami believe that he attained martyrdom on the of Safar. Shaikh Abbas Qummi accepts this saying in his book, ” Qurrat – ul – Basera”. Ibn Shahr Ashoob says that Imam Hassan (A.S) achieved Shahadat on 28th Safar . Shaikh Kulaini and Khazaz Qummi say , that the holy imam was martyred on the last day of Safar.
It has been narrated that Imam Hassan (A.S) had thirteen to sixteen children. From amongst his children are Fatema. The mother of Imam Mohammad Baqer (A.S). Qasem, Abdullah and Amir are also his children who achieved Shahadat during the episode of Kerbala behind their holy uncle Imam Hussain (A.S).
Janat ul Baqi, before the destruction by Ibne Saud’s regime in 1920