Azadari….detailed study and different views


alam_abbas-large-msg-114190813409-2.jpgAzadari

“Azadari” means wailing or weeping on the sacrification of Ahlal Bait and Imam Hussain.Islam is a religion based on nature. Wailing or weeping is the innate instinct of a human being. A newborn child starts his life crying. Weeping is not prohibited in any religion or creed of the world. Tears are automatically shed when a man is confronted by any physical, mental or spiritual mishap, and tears are not only the sign of grief but also a kind of reimbursement for that grief. Now in whose grief does a newborn child weep? That’s the question, which can be answered by the one who remembers his own weeping when he was born. It is said, that when Adam (as) was sent to this earth from heaven, he wept on that migration and hence every child of Adam (as), weeps when he opens his eyes in this world. If this is true, then this reason for wailing certainly supports our point of view that in the grief of a departure, wailing is a natural habit. Wailing or weeping is a natural instinct hence Allah (swt) has also praised this act and has said in the Holy Qur’an:

We read in Surah Maryam 019.058

YUSUFALI: Those were some of the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His Grace, – of the posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried (in the Ark) with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and Israel of those whom We guided and chose. Whenever the Signs of (Allah) Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they would fall down in prostrate adoration and in tears.

Surah An-Nahl verse 53

YUSUF ALI: And ye have no good thing but is from Allah. And moreover, when ye are touched by distress, unto Him ye cry with groans.

It is quite clear from these words of Allah (swt) that He praises this act and dislikes mocking the concept of weeping. Therefore, during mortification or humility before Allah (swt) and during the situations of calamity and catastrophe, wailing is the act of the praised ones and since ‘wailing’ is a composite act of mourning it serves as evidence for mourning.

Crying is an act of believers

[Yusufali 5:83] And when they listen to the revelation received by the Messenger, thou wilt see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recognise the truth: they pray: “Our Lord! We believe; write us down among the witnesses.This proves that crying is an act of the believers and according to the Holy Qur’an flowing of tears is a sign of believing in the truth.

This verse was revealed when some Christians from Habsha visited Madina. Shah Abdul Qadir Mohaddis Dehlavi gives its explanation in his “Tafseer e Moza al Qur’an”.

“When the persecutions by the pagans of Makkah were no longer bearable, the Holy Prophet(s) ordered the Muslims to migrate to some other country. That same day nearly 80 Muslims (some alone and some along with their families) migrated towards Habsha. The ruler of Habsha in those days was a very just man; the pagans of Makkah approached the king and lied to him that this new group of people calls Jesus Christ a slave. On hearing this, the king asked the Muslims to recite something from their book, which the Muslims did. After hearing the recitation of the Holy Qur’an some of their saints started crying and said that this is exactly what they have come to know by his Excellency Jesus Christ, and he had further said that after Him, another apostle would come and no doubt this person is that apostle. The king accepted Islam secretly, and this verse has been revealed for him.”

The flowing of tears from eyes is called crying and crying is one of the aspects of mourning, therefore the relation of this verse with mourning is automatically proved.

Of relevance is Abu Bakr’s very own admission that the Sahaba would weep when reciting the Quran. We are citing the comments of Ghazzali in “Ahya ul Uloom Adeen” Volume 2, [Urdu] Translation by Maulana Nadeem Al Waajdi Fazil Deobandi, Published in Karachi:

“When Abu Bakr saw an Arab man weeping while listening to the Holy Quran He said : “We used to weep in the same manner as you are weeping but now our hearts have become stonned”

The entire content of the Qur’an is true as is Husayn (as)’s martyrdom. According to Hadeeth-e-Thaqlain both have an unbreakable link. Just as the eyes of believers are filled with tears when they hear the recitation of the Holy Qur’an, they also shed tears when hearing of Imam Husayn’s (as) martyrdom. Husayn (as) was the Talking Qur’an and the moment one hears about the hardships faced by Imam (as) one laments over his death and shed tears.

Lamentation from the Qur’an

We read in Surah Bara’at verse 82:

Therefore they shall laugh little and weep much (as) a recompense for what they used to earn.

The Verse clearly sanctifies weeping and crying else it would have prohibited it. History stands as clear proof how Prophets, Messengers and Messiahs from Allah (swt) have wept and cried, singing the glory and greatness of Allah (swt) and expressing their own humbleness and fragility before Him (swt). Also every one of these men have wept and cried for Imam Husayn (as) long before the Tragedy of Karbala took place! We ordinary men should follow these great men of Allah (swt) and adopt their ideals and practices.

The weeping of the Sahaba in the Qur’an

Moreover, see this verse in the chapter of weeping:

[Shakir 9:92] Nor in those who when they came to you that you might carry them, you said: I cannot find that on which to carry you; they went back while their eyes overflowed with tears on account of grief for not finding that which they should spend.

This verse descended with regard to some sahaba who asked the Prophet(s) for horses in order to participate in jihad.There were seven men of the Ansar who came to the Holy Prophet and told him that they did not have provisions for going with him on the expedition of Tabuk. On hearing from the Holy Prophet that there was nothing left with him after providing others, they went away weeping.

One of the reasons that we weep for the tragedy of karbala is that we were not present at that time otherwise we would have helped the besieged grand son of Holy Prophet(s) and participated in jihad. If Sahaba can weep for not been able to participate in jihad at their time, than why cant Shi’a weep for the same reason?

Wailing from the Qur’an

Wailing has been permitted and nothing against it is found in any Book; on the contrary, there is the word “La yateni” from Verse 40 of Chapter 78, Al Naba’ The Great news in Part 30.

“Oh! Would that I were dust”

The word underlined from the Verse above shows that it is an indication for wailing, which is crying with a loud voice at loss of something dear to one’s heart, and this is a Verse from The Holy Qur’an. The comments of Deobandi scholar Anwar Shah Kashmiree are worthy of note:

“There is nothing against Islam in expressing grief, sorrow or in crying and weeping at the loss of a loved one”.Fayz al Bari fi Sharh Saheeh Bukharee, Volume 12, Page 462, Printed in Egypt

The earth and sky shed no tears for the Dhalimeen

In the Holy Qur’an Allah (swt) refers to the drowning of Pharaoh and his army as follows:

Yusufali 44:29] And neither heaven nor earth shed a tear over them: nor were they given a respite (again).

Comment

This Holy verse proves that crying over the unjust is not permissible but those who are just and have been treated unfairly can be cried and lamented over.

The verse refers the manner in which the rebellious Pharaoh was punished by Allah (swt) and he and his army was drowned. No one felt aggrieved and no one mourned their death. The verse stipulates that the earth and the sky did not weep at the death of Pharaoh, so clearly there exist scenarios wherein the earth and skies do indeed cry. We can conclude from this that when a rebel is punished no one is to cry over them, conversely, it is a desirable act to cry over someone’s hardships particularly those inflicted on pious people.

Allah (swt)’s reference to the sky and the earth is to stress the grandeur of these two places. It means that due to Pharaoh’s character no one mourned over his death. It is clear from this verse that mourning is specified for the pious and not for the evil .It acts as a warning that those that adhere to the path of Pharaoh shall perish like him and will have no one to mourn over them. Conversely if you give your life for the sake of religion and Allah (swt), you will attain respect and adherents that shall mourn your loss.

This verse proves that there are certain people in the world upon whom the heaven and earth weep, that is why Allah (swt) refers to the people of Pharaoh who were not from amongst those people who are cried upon by the heaven and the earth, but they are some other dear creatures of Allah.

Commentaries of this verses also confirm that the Heaven and the Earth cry upon the special individuals.

Allamah Jalaludin Suyuti states in his commentary of the verse that the Holy Prophet (s) said:

“They had done no deed that would merit the earth and Heaven crying for them, neither did anything pleasant come from their speech nor did any good deeds reach the heavens, that would merit the earth and heaven crying for them.”Tafseer Durre Manthur volume 6, page 30

Allamah Fakhruddin Raazi after quoting the same tradition states:

“The same comments have been made by other commentators (Mufassireen).”Tafseer e Kabir, volume 7, page 471

Suyuti also records this, in Tafseer Durre Manthur Volume 6, page 30:

A few people asked Hadhrath ibn e Abbas (r.a) that if the heaven and the earth really cry for some people? His reply was: “Yes.”

The weeping of the skies and Jinn for Imam Husayn (as)

“The grief of Imam Husayn (as) is the grief on which not only Humans, but even jinnat, Angels, animals, birds, the sky and trees, all lament. Thus it is written that the sky wept for forty days on (the martyrdom of) Imam Husayn (as)”.”Yanabi ul Mawwaddat”, by Allamah Shaykh Salman Hanafi Qundoozi, Printed in Constantinople, page 392

Hafidh Abu Naim writes in “Hilayath al Awliya” on the authority on Imam Shaabee, Zuhri, and Abu Qutada:

“When Imam Husayn (as) was martyred, the sun was eclipsed (so long) so that the stars appeared.”Waqiyaat-e-Karbala (The Events of Karbala), page 75

Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi has narrated the lamenting and wailing of Jinn on page number 96 of his book titled “Sirrul Shahdatain”. He has also quoted the verses of the elegy, which was recited by the Jinn while weeping over Imam Husayn (as).

Um Salma (ra) has also narrated: “I heard the Djinns mourning for al-Husayn.”

This testimony of a wife of the Prophet can be located in the following esteemed Sunni works:

1. Tareekh al-Kabir, by al-Bukharee (the author of Saheeh), v4, part 1, p26

   2. Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p776, Tradition #1373
   3. Tabarani, v3, pp 130-131

4. Tahdhib, v7

These are evidences of natural phenomena that occurred on the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (as) that has been preserved in Sunni works, which proves that every creation in the universe mourned over the martyrs of Karbala. Where there will be intense weeping and wailing, and moaning and lamenting, there will be chest beating and face smiting as well as is seen in daily life.

How does Heaven cry?

Let us now ascertain how heaven cries, and how we know when it does.

Allamah Jalaludin Syuti writes that Hadhrath Atta (ra) said: “The sky cries in a manner that all of its corners get red.”

He quotes Hadhrath Hasan Basri to have said: “When the sky gets red it weeps.”Tafseer Durre Manthur Volume 6, page 30

Allamah Mohammad ibn e Jareer Tabari states: “The crying of the heaven is such that all of its corners get red.”Tafseer e Jame’a al-Bayan, Allama Tabari, volume 25, page 68, published in Egypt

Allamah Nizam-ud-din Neshapoori states: “Many Mufassireen are of the view that the sky can cry, so they believe that the solar and the lunar eclipses, the corners of the sky getting red and the blowing of wild and pinching wind are forms of the sky weeping.”Tafseer e Neshapoori, volume 25, page 73, published in Egypt

The weeping of the heaven and earth over Imam Husayn (as)

Now let us analyze that who those people are who are cried at by the heaven and the earth.

Allamah Jalaludin Syuti writes that Hadhrath Ibrahim said:

“Since the creation of the world, the heaven and the earth have cried for none else other then two pious men.

The People asked him: “Do not the heaven and the earth cry for the Momineen?”

He replied: “When they are virtous his privilege is linked to his status and deeds.” He (s) then asked them if they knew how the heaven and the earth cries.

The people replied in the negative, therefore he (s) said: “It becomes fiery and red, just as the red boiling oil.

Suyuti adds:

The day when Hadhrath Yahya bin Zakarya (a.s) was martyred the sky had got red and blood was dripping from it and the sky had also got red the day Imam Husayn (a.s) was martyred.”

He further states that Zaid bin Ziyad has reported:

“When Imam Husayn was martyred, the corners of the sky remained red for a four month period.”Tafseer Durre Manthur Volume 6, page 31

Wahaby scholar Nawab Molvi Siddiq Hasan Khan Bhophali quotes Saddi in Tafseer Fatah ul-Bayan, volume 8, page 326:

“When Husayn (as) was martyred the heaven kept crying evidenced by the fact it turned red.”

Hardline Nasibi scholar Ibn e Katheer writes: “When Hadhrath Yahya bin Zakariya (a.s) was assassinated the sky turned red, it also turned red when Imam Husayn (r) was martyred..:After the martyrdom of Husayn (r) fresh blood started to gush from wherever stones were picked up. There was a solar eclipse, the corners of the sky had turned red.”Tafseer Ibn Katheer, volume 9, page 163, published in Egypt

Allamah Ibn Jareer Tabari writes that Saddi said: “When Imam Husayn (r) was martyred, the sky started weeping for him, the weeping of the sky was proven by its turning red.”Tafseer Jame’a al-Bayan, volume 25, page 68

In Arjyah ul-Matalib, page 347-348 Deobandi scholar Maulana Ubaid-ullah Amritsari states:

“The occurrence of these natural calamities was for the admonition for the masses after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (r). Basra Adhwiya says that when Imam Husayn (r) was martyred it started to drizzle and by the morning all of their pots and water-drums were filled with blood. Zuhri (r.a) says that on the day of Imam Husayn’s martyrdom no stone was picked in Jerusalem that did not have fresh blood under it. Sufyan Thuri (r.a) narrates that his grand-mother was a young slave-girl at the time of Imam Husayn’s martyrdom; she had said that the sky kept weeping for him for many days. Hadhrath Ammar e Yasir (r) has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s) had said that the heaven had once cried for Yahya bin Zakariya and it will also cry upon the Holy Prophet’s (s) son (Husayn). “

Allama Ibn e Hajr Makki writes: “After Imam Husayn’s (a.s) martyrdom the sky kept crying continuously for seven days, the walls seem to be wearing coloured sheets and it is a proven fact that darkness prevailed over the world for three days and then a reddish light was apparent on the sky.”

He further quotes Abu Sa’eed: “The day Imam Husayn (a.s) was martyred, no stone was picked in the world that did not have blood under it, blood kept oozing from the sky and the affects remained on the clothing for a long time, until the clothes became worn out.

�Sa’lbi has said that the sky kept crying for Imam Husayn’s (a.s) martyrdom and the sky’s crying was its turning red. Besides Sa’lbi a few others have said that the corners of the sky remain red for six months after Imam Husayn’s (a.s) martyrdom and then it started to emerge every now and then.”

�Ibn e Seerain has said that they have come to know that this reddish light that emerges with the evening twilight did not exist before Imam Husayn’s (a.s) martyrdom.”

�Ibn e Sa’ad has written in his Tabaqaat that that redness was not seen on the skies before Imam Husayn’s (a.s) martyrdom.” Sawaiqh al Muhriqa, page 623-624 published in Faisalabad

We share the same faith with the skies and the earth

Just as we believe in the oneness of Allah (swt), the Prophethood of Holy Prophet(s) and the Wilayah (Mastership) of Imam Ali (as), we have faith in all that Allah (swt) has created in the skies and on the earth. We believe that the earth and skies also weep over the hardships that were experienced by the Ahl’ul bayt (as).

Ibn Hajr al Makki in Sawaiqh al Muhriqa records a tradition wherein:

“Ali, while passing through Karbala, stopped at the place where Husayn was going to be buried and said: “Here Husayn and his comrades will be slain and the heavens and the earth shall weep over them”.

The constant weeping of Angels for Imam Husayn (as)

Imam of Ahl’ul Sunnah, Shaikh ‘Abdul Qadir Jilani, in his famous book, “Ghanyatul Talibeen”, page 430; comments:

“70,000 angels came to the grave of Husayn bin Ali after his martyrdom and they wept for him and will keep weeping unto the Day of Judgment.” Ghanyatul Talibeen, page 430 published in Dehli

Nasibi say that the Shi’a commit Bidah by mourning the tragedy of Husayn (as) every year, what Fatwa do they have upon these 70,000 angels that mourn Husayn (as) every day?

Ibn Sa`d, Ibn Hajr al Maki and other scholars have recorded:

“After the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (as), the sides of the sky remained red for six months, and then its redness became permanent which is visible every evening.”Sawaiq Muhriqa, Pp.114

It is not permissible to cry at the suffering of the Kuffar

Another incident that Nasibis seek to twist as proof that crying for Imam Husayn (as) concerns the lack of remorse offered by Prophet Shuayb (as) for his people. These lines are not clear We read in Surah e Araf verses 91-93:

[Yusufali] But the earthquake took them unawares, and they lay prostrate in their homes before the morning!

The men who reject Shu’aib became as if they had never been in the homes where they had flourished:

the men who rejected Shu’aib – it was they who were ruined!

So Shu’aib left them, saying: “O my people! I did indeed convey to you the messages for which I was sent by my Lord: I gave you good counsel, but how shall I lament over a people who refuse to believe!”

According to the words of Prophet Shu’aib (as) lamenting over the calamities befallen on righteous people is permissible but not for those calamities that confront unbelievers. This is clear from the verse; he (as) refused to lament for those that did not believe.

The tears of Hadhrath Adam (as)

“Hadhrath Adam (as) was so grieved that he did not smile for a year, then the angels prayed for the grief to perish and he laughed.”Tafseer Ibn Katheer, volume 1, page 86

Logic dictates that had Adam (as) not been crying, the angels would never have prayed for his grief to subside and the prayer by angels itself is a consolation during the time of hardship. Had weeping or crying been a sin then the infallible angels would never have prayed for Adam (as). Their prayer meant that Adam’s (as) act was right.Had it been wrong Allah (swt) would have condemned Hadhrath Adam (as) and told him to abandon such practice but nothing of the sort happened. The reference demonstrates that the act of mourning and crying is related to nature, you cannot force yourself to act against what is an innate characteristic. The Angles made supplication for Adam (as) to be consoled after a passage of a year; they did not supplicate that Adam (as) abandon a practice that was Haraam!

The tears of Hadhrath Nuh (as)

We read in Al sawi al Jalalayn, volume 2, page 132, published in Egypt.

Hadhrath Nuh’s (as) original name was Abdul Ghafar, he was called Noah on account if his crying (Noha).

Comment

Sunni books of Tafseer state that Nuh (as) wept for a thousand years to attain the pleasure of Allah (swt) which is why he was called Nuh (as) that means crying with a loud voice.This means that while in a state of sorrow, one loses control over his emotions and in such circumstances he may even beat himself. Verily, the mourning of Hadhrath Nuh (as) is further proof of the legitimacy of mourning.

Rasulullah (s) wept at the death of his son Ibraheem (as)

We read in Saheeh al Bukharee Volume 2, Book 23, Number 390:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:We went with Allah’s Apostle (pbuh) to the blacksmith Abu Saif, and he was the husband of the wet-nurse of Ibrahim (the son of the Prophet). Allah’s Apostle took Ibrahim and kissed him and smelled him and later we entered Abu Saif’s house and at that time Ibrahim was in his last breaths, and the eyes of Allah’s Apostle (pbuh) started shedding tears. ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf said, “O Allah’s Apostle, even you are weeping!” He said, “O Ibn ‘Auf, this is mercy.” Then he wept more and said, “The eyes are shedding tears and the heart is grieved, and we will not say except what pleases our Lord, O Ibrahim! Indeed we are grieved by your separation.”

A more detailed tradition is recorded in Mishkat al Masabih:

Uns bin Malik reports that we entered the house along with the Prophet(s) and Hadhrath Ibrahim was taking his last breaths. Tears started to flow from Holy Prophet’s (s) eyes. Abdur Rehman bin Auf said “O` Prophet of Allah! Your such condition.” Holy Prophet(s) replied “O` Son of Auf! This is a blessing and after which one cries too” he further added “then the eyes cry and the heart becomes grieved but we do not say anything against Allah’s will (it means that we do not complain to Allah) O` Ibrahim no doubt that we are grieved and sad over your departure.

“Mishkaat, Volume 1, page 298 Published Karachi Murtaza Naqvi

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