SALAT FOR BEGINNERS Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani


SALAT FOR BEGINNERS

Based on Fatwas of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani

Conditions of Wudhu

The conditions for a correct Wudhu are mentioned as below:

1) The water should be clean.
2) The water should be pure (unmixed).
3) The water must be Mubah, i.e. it should not be usurped. Wudhu with usurped water is not correct.
4) The container of the water used for Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver.
5) The container or vessel which contains water should Mubah, unusurped.
6) Parts of the body on which Wudhu is performed should be Pak, at the time of washing and wiping.
7) The seventh condition is that the person doing Wudhu should have sufficient time at his disposal for Wudhu and prayer.
8) Wudhu should be performed in the prescribed sequence.
9) The acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without time gap in between.
10) A person doing Wudhu should wash his hands and face and wipe his head and feet himself.
11) There should be no constraint for using water.
12) There should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu.

How to perform Wudhu

The conditions for a correct Wudhu are mentioned as below:

Before every daily obligatory prayer it is necessary for a person to do Wudhu (ablution).

Niyyat (Intention):
Niyyat should be performed in ones mind as follows: “I perform the wudhu in order to cleanse myself from impurity and to make myself eligible for Salat, wajib qurbatan Ilallah.” It is not therefore necessary to verbally recite the Niyyat.

Washing the face:
The portion of the face to be washed is from the forehead (from the point where the hair starts growing), to the end of the chin in length and its width is as much of the face that comes between the thumb and the middle finger when they are spread (wide open).
Even if the small portion of the face is not washed, Wudhu will be void. As a precaution, one must wash a little bit beyond the required limit. Any dirt on the face (or hands) which may prevent water from reaching the skin must be removed before you start the wudhu.
While washing the face, it is desirable to say: Alla humma bayyiz wajhi yawma taswaddufihil wujuh wala tusawwid waj hi yawma tabyazzul wujuh (O Lord! Make my face bright on the Day when the faces will turn dark. Do not darken my face on the day when the faces are bright).
The face and hands should be washed from above downwards, and if one washes the opposite way, his Wudhu will be void.

Washing the hands from the elbows to the tip of the fingers:
After washing the face, one should first wash the right hand and then the left hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers. In order to ensure that each elbow has been washed thoroughly, one should include some portion above the elbow in washing. If before washing his face, a person has washed his hands up to the wrist, he should, while performing Wudhu, wash them up to the tips of the fingers, and if he washes them only up to the wrist, his Wudhu is void.

While pouring water over the right elbow, it is Mustahab (desirable) to say: Alla humma a’tini kitabi bi yamini wal khulda fil jinani bi yasari was hasibni hisaban yasira (O Lord! Give my book of deeds in my right hand, and a permanent stay in Paradise on my left, and make my reckoning an easy one).

While pouring water over the left elbow, it is Mustahab to say: Alla humma la tutini kitabi bishimali wala min wara’I zahri wala taj alha maghlu latan ila unuqi wa a’uzu bika min muqat ta’atin niran (O Lord! Do not give my book of deeds in my left hand, nor from behind my back, nor chain it to my neck. I seek refuge in You from the Hell-fire).

While performing Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face and the hands once, and it is recommended to wash them twice. After washing both the hands, one performing Wudhu should wipe the front part of his head with the wetness which is in his hand.

While performing the wiping of the head, it is Mustahab to say: Alla humma ghashshini bi rahmatika wa barakatika wa ‘afwika (O Lord! Cover me with Your Mercy, Blessings and Forgiveness).

After wiping the head, one should wipe with the moisture present in one’s hands, one’s feet from any toe of the foot up to the joint. As a recommended precaution, the right foot should be wiped with the right hand, and the left foot with the left hand.

While performing the wiping of the feet, one should say: Alla humma thabbitni alas sirati yawma tazillu fihil aqdam. Waj’al sa’yi fi ma yurzika ‘anni (O Lord! Keep me firm on the Bridge (to Paradise) on the Day when the feet will slip, and help me in my efforts to do things which will please You).

What Invalidates Wudhu

Wudhu becomes void on account of the following seven things:

  • Passing of urine
  • Excretion
  • Passing wind from the rear
  • A sleep, deep enough to restrict sight and hearing
  • Insanity
  • Intoxication
  • Unconsciousness
  • Every state which requires Ghusl, like Janabat
  • Tayammum

    Tayammum should be performed instead of Wudhu or Ghusl in the following seven conditions:

    1. When it is not possible to find sufficient water for performing Wudhu or Ghusl.

    2. If a person is unable to find water on account of old age or weakness or due to fear of a thief or a beast or because he does not possess means to draw water from a well, he should perform tayammum. The same order would apply in case the trouble to acquire water is usually considered to be unbearable.

    3. If a person fears that if he uses water his life will be in danger or he will suffer from some ailment or defect in his body or the ailment from which he is already suffering will become acute or some complications will arise in its treatment. However, if warm water is not injurious for him, he should perform Wudhu with it and also do Ghusl with it in cases in which Ghusl is obligatory.

    4. If a person fears that if he uses water to do Ghusl, or to perform Wudhu, he will be involved in hardship, he should perform Tayammum under the following 3 cases:

  • In case he fears that if he uses the water for Ghusl or Wudhu, he will be involved in an acute thirst, which may result in his illness or death, or which it will be very hard for him to bear;
  • In case he fears that in the event of his doing Ghusl or Wudhu, the people whose care is obligatory for him may become ill or die on account of thirst,
  • and, In case he fears, on account of lack of water, for others ( whether human beings or animals ) besides himself, and their death, illness or restlessness is unpleasant for him.
  • In the absence of anyone or more of the three conditions mentioned above it is not permissible to perform Tayammum when water is available.
    5. If the body or dress of a person is impure and he possesses only so much water that it is likely to be exhausted if he takes a bath or washes his dress he should, on the basis of precaution, take a bath or wash his dress, and offer his prayer after performing Tayammum. However, if he does not possess anything with which to perform Tayammum he should use the water for bathing or for Wudhu and offer his prayers with impure body or dress.

    6. If fetching water would mean humiliation and insult for him.

    7. If fetching water would require him to pay high price for it.

    8. If a person possess unlawful water or container, he should perform Tayammum instead of Ghusl or Wudhu.

    9. When the time left for offering prayers is so short that if a person does the Ghusl or Wudhu he would be obliged to offer the entire prayers or a part thereof after the prescribed time, he should perform Tayammum.

    If a person intentionally delays offering the prayers so much that no time is left for Ghusl or Wudhu he will have committed a sin, but the prayers offered by him after performing Tayammum will be in order, although recommended precaution is that he should also offer the prayers in question again after performing the Ghusl or Wudhu, whatever the case maybe. In case a person is doubtful whether or not any time will be left for prayers, in case he does the Ghusl or Wudhu, he should perform Tayammum and then offer prayers.

    How to do Tayammum.

    1. Niyyat: I am doing Tayammum in place of Wudhu or Ghusl, so that my prayer or fast may be correct, Wajib or Sunnat Qurbatan ilallah.

    2. Strike palms of both hands together upon things on which Tayammum is correct. Just putting the hands upon earth etc. is not enough.

    3. Pull both palms together from the beginning of the forehead down to the point of the nose. Both sides of the forehead joining the ears should be included.

    4. Then pull the left palm upon the back of the right hand from the projecting small bone on the joint of palm and arm up to the fingertips.

    5. Then pull the right palm on the back of the left palm likewise.

    6. Strike the palms together upon earth etc. second time.

    7. Pull the left palm on the back of the right hand, as explained above.

    8. Pull the right palm on the back of the left hand, as explained above.

    While performing tayammum one should remove the ring he or she is wearing and also remove any obstruction which may be present on his forehead or on the palms or back of his hands.

    Covering Body in Salat

    While offering prayers, a man should cover his private parts even if no one is looking at him. As for a woman, she should cover her entire body while offering prayers, including her head and hair. It is not necessary for her to cover that part of her face, which is washed while performing Wudhu, or the hands up to the wrists, (or the upper feet up to the ankles, if there is no stranger).

    There are six conditions for the dress used in Salat:

  • It should be clean.
  • It should be Mubah, as an obligatory precaution.
  • It should not be made of the parts of a dead body.
  • It should not be made from pure silk. (Ruling for men only.)
  • It should not have any gold objects. (Ruling for men only.)
  • It should not be made of carcass, whose meat is Harram. If a clothe is made from leather, it should be from an animal whose meat is halal.
  • Covering Body in Salat

  • Place on which prayer is offered must not be usurped. If a person prays on a usurped property, his prayers are void.
  • Being stable. The place for prayers should not have such a vigorous movement, which would make normal standing, Ruku or Sajdah impossible. In fact, it should not prevent the body from being at ease.
  • It should not make body or clothes of a person who wants to offer prayers Najis. If the place where one wishes to pray is Najis, it should not be so wet that its moisture would reach the body or the dress of the person praying except than those kinds of Nejasat which are negligible in Salat.
  • Men should stand in front of women. Women should stand behind men while praying. It is better that her place of Sajdah placed a little back from where a man stands for Salat. Hence, if a woman stands in front of a man, or in the same line, Salat is void.
  • Times of Prayer

    Time of Fajr prayer: Just before dawn a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the Prime time for Subh prayers. The time for Subh prayers is till sunrise.

    Time of Zohr prayer: It begins when the sun starts inclining to the west.

    Time of Asr prayer: It begins when the special time of Zohr prayer is over. The special time for Zohr prayer is from the beginning of Zohr until the time required for such prayer. The time for Asr prayer ends at sunset.

    Time of Maghrib prayer: Maghrib is the time that the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset has passed overhead. The time for Maghrib Prayer is from the beginning of Maghrib until when there is only enough time left to offer Isha Prayer before mid-night.

    Time for Isha prayer: It begins when the special time of Maghrib prayer is over. The special time for Maghrib prayer is from the beginning of Maghrib until the time required for such prayer. The time for Isha prayer ends at midnight (for a person of a free will).

    Note: Mid-Night in relation to Isha and Maghrib prayers is time between sunset and dawn. Mid-night time differs from season to season and time to time throughout a year.

    Qibla

    It is obligatory for one who is offering a prayer – be it Mustahab or obligatory – to offer in the direction of Qibla which is the Holy Ka’bah.

    Adhan

    It is highly recommended for a man and a woman to say Adhan before offering daily prayers.

    Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences:Allahu Akbar (Allah is greater than any description) four times;

    Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah two times;

    Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah two times;

    Hayya’alas Salah two times;

    Hayya’alal Falah two times;

    Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal two times;

    Allahu Akbar two times;

    La ilaha illal lah two times.

    Iqamah

    It is highly recommended for a man and a woman to say Adhan before offering daily obligatory prayers.

    Iqamah consists of the following 17 sentences:

    Allahu Akbar (Allah is greater than any description) two times;

    Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah two times;

    Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah two times;

    Hayya’alas Salah two times;

    Hayya’alal Falah two times;

    Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal two times;

    Qadqa matis Salah two times;

    Allahu Akbar two times;

    La ilaha illal lah one time.

    Note: Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu’minina Aliyyan Waliyyullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the Niyyat of Qurbat.

    What Invalidates Prayer

  • Urine or excretion, Janabah, menses.
  • One of the invalidating agents of prayer is to turn away from Qibla intentionally or forgetfully, or turning to right or left from Qibla or even turning intentionally so much that it is not towards Qibla in general view.
  • Whatever act that changes the appearance of prayer. For example, if a person moves his body voilently like a dancing or jumping, it invalidates prayer.
  • Uttering a word or words intentionally.
  • Intentional, loud and uncontrollable laugh.
  • If one intentionally weeps loudly over some worldly matters, his Prayer will be void. But if he weeps silently or loudly due to fear of Allah, or for the hereafter, there is no harm in it. In fact, it is among the best acts. It is said that the Lord of Martyrs, Imam Husain (a.s.) wept in his prayer when returning to hereafter.
  • Eating and drinking.
  • Folding hands (i.e. placing one hand on the other at prayer).
  • Saying “Amin” after Surah al-Hamd.
  • Dawn Prayers

    After we have performed Wudhu, we stand in the direction of Qibla. It is recommended to recite Adhan and Iqamah before Salat. Then we begin the morning prayers which consist of two Rak’ats (units). The time for dawn prayers is when a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the Prime time for Subh prayers. The time for Subh prayers is till sunrise.

    The dawn prayers are offered as under:

    Niyyat (intention): Niyyat is the intention one has in his mind. It is not necessary to utter it; to pass it through his mind is sufficient. He makes the Niyyat as such: “I am offering two Rak’ats of dawn prayers, qurbatan elal lah.” ‘Qurbatan elal lah’ means seeking nearness to Allah, in obedience to Him.

    Takbiratul Ehram: Lift boths hands up to the ears and say: Allahu Akbar

    To say Allahu Akbar in the beginning of every prayer is obligatory. It is also necessary that these two words should be pronounced in correct Arabic. If a person pronounces these words incorrectly, or utters their translation, it will not be valid.
    It is necessary that when a person pronounces Takbiratul Ehram, his body is steady, if he pronounces Takbiratul Ehram intentionally when his body is in motion, his Takbir is void.

    Qira’at (Reciting the Surah Al-Hamd and Other Surah of Holy Qur’an): In the the daily obligatory prayers, after the Takbiratul Ehram, one should recite Surah al-Hamd followed by another complete Surah such as Sura-e Ikhlas. The he says Takbir (Allhu Akbar) and bends for Ruku.

    Note: If we are offering Al-Fil chapter in in our prayers, it is necessary to offer Al-elaaf with it. Similarly, if we reciting Al-Zohaa chapter, we have to recite Alam Nashrah with it. It is necessary for men to recite dawn, Maghrib and Isha prayers in audible voice.

    Ruku: In every Rak’at, a person offering prayers should, after reciting the Surah (Qira’at), bow to an extent that he is able to rest his finger tips on his knees. This act is called Ruku. When our body is motionless we recite: Sobhana Rabbiyal ‘Azimi wa bi hamdih (Free from all defects is my Lord, and with His praise I bow.) After the

    completion of the Zikr of Ruku, one should stand straight, and proceed to Sajdah after the body has become steady.

    Sajdah: Sajdah means that one should place one’s forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility (before Allah).

    While performing Sajdahs during prayers, it is obligatory that both the palms and the knees, and both the big toes are placed on the ground.
    A person offering prayers should perform two sajdahs after the Ruku, in each Rak’at of the obligatory prayer.
    The following zikr should be recited in the sajdah once:

    Subhana Rabbi yal A’la wa bihamdih once.

    (Glory be to my Great Sustainer, Most High, and I praise Him.)
    Then sit up in a kneeling position with the ankle of the right foot in the sole of the left foot, with hands resting on the thighs and say: “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is Great). Repeat the Sajdah again and then sit up in a kneeling position and say: “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is Great).

    Sit up for a moment and then rise while saying: “Bay Hawlillahay wa Qoowateyhee Aqoomo wa Aqud” (Due to the vigour given by Allah and because of the vitality from Him I rise and stand).

    Second Rak’at

    Recite Surah Al-Hamd and Other Surah of Holy Qur’an as in the first rak’at followed by: “Allaho Akbar” (Allah is Great).

    Now do Qunoot. Keep your hands in front of your face, turning the palms facing the sky, and keeping both, the hands and the fingers, close together and recite the following: Rabbana Aatayna Fiddoonya Hasanataw wa fil Aakheratey Hasanataw wa Qena Azaban Nar . (O our Lord! Bestow upon us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the fire).

    Go back to Ruku and recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah’s (just as in the first rak’at).

    Tashahhud: After the second Sajdah at the end of second rak’at recite the following while sitting with a tranquil body: “Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ‘Abduhu wa Rasuluh Alla humma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa Aale Muhammad” (I testify that there is none worth worshipping except the Almighty Allah, Who is One and has no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny).

    Salaam: After Tashahhud recite the Salaam as follows:
    Assalamu ‘alayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh
    (O Prophet! Allah’s peace, blessings and grace be upon you!).
    Assalamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadil lahis salihin
    (Allah’s peace be on us, those offering prayers – and upon all pious servants of Allah).
    Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.
    (Allah’s peace, blessings and grace be on you believers!)
    The Dawn Prayer is complete.

    Zohr Prayers

    Niyyat (intention): Niyyat is the intention one has in his mind. It is not necessary to utter it; to pass it through his mind is sufficient. He makes the Niyyat as such: “I am offering four Rak’ats of Zohr prayers, qurbatan elal lah.” ‘Qurbatan elal lah’ means seeking nearness to Allah, in obedience to Him.

    Takbiratul Ehram: Lift boths hands up to the ears and say: Allahu Akbar

    To say Allahu Akbar in the beginning of every prayer is obligatory. It is also necessary that these two words should be pronounced in correct Arabic. If a person pronounces these words incorrectly, or utters their translation, it will not be valid. It is necessary that when a person pronounces Takbiratul Ehram, his body is steady, if he pronounces Takbiratul Ehram intentionally when his body is in motion, his Takbir is void.

    Qira’at (Reciting the Surah Al-Hamd and Other Surah of Holy Qur’an): In the the daily obligatory prayers, after the Takbiratul Ehram, one should recite Surah al-Hamd followed by another complete Surah such as Sura-e Ikhlas. The he says Takbir (Allhu Akbar) and bends for Ruku.

    Note: If we are offering Al-Fil chapter in in our prayers, it is necessary to offer Al-elaaf with it. Similarly, if we reciting Al-Zohaa chapter, we have to recite Alam Nashrah with it. It is necessary for men to recite dawn, Maghrib and Isha prayers in audible voice.

    Ruku: In every Rak’at, a person offering prayers should, after reciting the Surah (Qira’at), bow to an extent that he is able to rest his finger tips on his knees. This act is called Ruku. When our body is motionless we recite:

    Sobhana Rabbiyal ‘Azimi wa bi hamdih (Free from all defects is my Lord, and with His praise I bow.) After the completion of the Zikr of Ruku, one should stand straight, and proceed to Sajdah after the body has become steady.

    Sajdah: Sajdah means that one should place one’s forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility (before Allah).
    While performing Sajdahs during prayers, it is obligatory that both the palms and the knees, and both the big toes are placed on the ground.
    A person offering prayers should perform two sajdahs after the Ruku, in each Rak’at of the obligatory prayer.
    The following zikr should be recited in the sajdah once:

    Subhana Rabbi yal A’la wa bihamdih once.

    (Glory be to my Great Sustainer, Most High, and I praise Him.)
    Then sit up in a kneeling position with the ankle of the right foot in the sole of the left foot, with hands resting on the thighs and say: “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is Great).
    Repeat the Sajdah again and then sit up in a kneeling position and say: “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is Great).
    Sit up for a moment and then rise while saying: “Bay Hawlillahay wa Qoowateyhee Aqoomo wa Aqud” (Due to the vigour given by Allah and because of the vitality from Him I rise and stand).
    Second Rak’at

    Recite Surah Al-Hamd and Other Surah of Holy Qur’an as in the first rak’at followed by: “Allaho Akbar” (Allah is Great).
    Now do Qunoot. Keep your hands in front of your face, turning the palms facing the sky, and keeping both, the hands and the fingers, close together and recite the following: Rabbana Aatayna Fiddoonya Hasanataw wa fil Aakheratey Hasanataw wa Qena Azaban Nar . (O our Lord! Bestow upon us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the fire).
    Go back to Ruku and recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah’s (just as in the first rak’at).Tashahhud: After the second Sajdah at the end of second rak’at recite the following while sitting with a tranquil body: “Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ‘Abduhu wa Rasuluh Alla humma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa Aale Muhammad” (I testify that there is none worth worshipping except the Almighty Allah, Who is One and has no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny).

    Then stand up for the third rak’at saying “Bay Hawlillahay wa Qoowateyhee Aqoomo wa Aqud” (Due to the vigour given by Allah and because of the vitality from Him I rise and stand). The recite Tasbihat Arba’ah three times in low whispering voice, as follows:

    “Subhanallahi wal hamdu lillahi wa la ilaha lallahu wallahu Akbar” (Glory be to Allah, and all praise is for Him and there is no one worth worshipping other than Allah, and He is Greater than any description). Then bend down for Ruku and recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah’s (just as in the first rak’at). Then stand upon once again and do what you did in the third rak’at. Then bend down for Ruku and recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah’s (just as in the third rak’at).Tashahhud: After the second Sajdah at the end of the fourth rak’at recite the following while sitting with a tranquil body: “Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ‘Abduhu wa Rasuluh Alla humma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa Aale Muhammad” (I testify that there is none worth worshipping except the Almighty Allah, Who is One and has no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny).

    Salaam: After Tashahhud recite the Salaam as follows:

    Assalamu ‘alayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh
    (O Prophet! Allah’s peace, blessings and grace be upon you!).
    Assalamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadil lahis salihin
    (Allah’s peace be on us, those offering prayers – and upon all pious servants of Allah).
    Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. (Allah’s peace, blessings and grace be on you believers!)Note: Asr and Isha prayers are offered in the same manner that Zohr prayer is offered. The difference is only in Nyyat and timing. As for Maghrib prayer, it consists of three rak’ats (units) and at the end of the third Rak’at, Tashahhud and Salaam are recited.

    http://www.sistani.org/html/eng/menu/miscellaneous/prayer/?lang=eng

    http://www.alqaem.org

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    One thought on “SALAT FOR BEGINNERS Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani”

    1. I am Shia Sadaat Asnai Ashri. i want to ask to that during Namaz When we recite 3 Salam after Tashahhud it is necessary to point our right finger towords Prophet Mohammad Roza/Mazaar at the time of salaam in Namaz.

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