SABIKA AND SAMANA TWO LUCKY LADIES
By Sayyid Jalal Mir Aq’aie
The third of Rajab of the year 254 Hejira is the day of Martyrdom of the tenth Islamic leader Imam Ali-an-Naqi (AS). The tenth day of the same month of the year 195 Hejira is the birthday of the ninth Imam (AS), Imam Muhammad Taqi-Al-Jawad (AS). These two great Imams (AS) are from the Prophet (SAW) who were from the great Prophet’s (SAW) household and the head of Ahlul-Bait (AS) in their time, were the symbols of piety, virtue (Taqwa) and being familiar with responsibility in their private and social lives for all Muslims.
In this brief article, we have a quick glance on the personality of these two Imams’ (AS) mothers whose name were “Kheizaran” and “Samana Afkande“:
SABIKA OR KHEIZARAN THE MOTHER OF IMAM MUHAMMAD TAQI (AS):
“Nubia” is an area between the Nile between “Asvan” and “Sudan” in the south of Egypt. The population of that area was Christian. The people fought with Muslims. Sabika who was a daughter of a Nubian nobleman taken captive by Muslim army and was taken to Medina.
Imam Ali-ibn-e- Musa-ar-Reza (AS) eight of the Ahlul-Bait’s (AS) Imams bought her and took her to his house. Sabika was a Muslim at that time and was considered as a member of the Prophet’s (SAW) family.
It is said that Sabika was from the same tribe to which Maria Qebtia, the Prophet’s (SAW) wife, and the mother of ibrahIm, the last child of the Prophet (SAW) belongs. About two centuries before the birth of Imam Muhammad Taqi (AS), the Prophet (SAW) had told: “May my father be ransom to the son of the best servant, the chaste woman from Nubia.1
The seventh leader of Islam, Imam Musa-al-Kadhim (AS) had told to one of his companions whose name was Yazid-ibn-e-Saleet:
“My son Ali (ibn-e-Musa-Reza) (AS) will have a boy who is trustee and auspicious. That boy’s mother will be a servant of Maria Qebtia’s tribe [the Prophet’s (SAW) wife]. Give my greeting when you see this servant2
Sabika entered to a new world (a world of superiority and virtue) when she came to Imam Reza’s (AS) house. She had some other names such as: Sakina, Sakken, Mrisie, Reihana and Dorra. After her marriage with Imam Reza (AS), Imam (AS) called her Kheizaran. Her Konye (agnomen) was Omm-ul-Hassan. She was proud of being the mother of Imam Muhammad Taqi, Jawad-ul-Aemme (AS).
SAMANA MAGHREBIE, THE MOTHER OF IMAM ALI-AN-NAQI-AL-HADI (AS):
Her Konye (agnamon) is Omm-ul-Fadhl and her other names are Susan and Haditha. She was a girl from Morocco a country in the north of Africa and the farthest land of the Islamic world.
She was brought to Medina as a slave. Imam Jawad (AS) introduced some of her characteristics to his relatives and asked them to buy her from the slave-trader.
She was born and brought up in an important and noble family in Morocco, but during his captivity and slavery she became very thin and weak. When she became the Imam Jawad’s (AS) wife and came to his house, she felt fortunate once again.
It is said in Jannat-ul-kholud (a name of a book) that Samana was always fasting while she was unique in virtue3.
It is also said in Ad-duro-Nadhim that Muhammad-ibn-e-Faraj and Ali-ibn-e- Mahziyar expressed on behalf of Imam Hadi (AS) that he said:
“My mother knows my rights. She is from the heaven. The rebellion Satan cannot come near to her and no oppressor and obstinate trick can hurt her. Allah is her supporter and guard. She is like the mother of Sediqin and Salehin 4. ”
At the era of the pagan state of the Arabs before Islam (Jaheliat), a woman was at a very low position in Arab society. The servants suffered from another oppression too; to be a woman and to be a servant.
When Islam appeared, considered men and women as equal from the viewpoint of the humanity position. The Almighty nullified all fanciful privilege that was among men in the verse 13 of the Chapter al-Hojorat. It introduced the equality principles as follows:
O! you men! Surely we have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty); surely Allah is Knowing, Aware.”
According to this verse, the great Prophet (SAW) married the Egyptian servant, Maria Qebtia and other great men of his household followed him so that among the Ahlul-Bait’s (AS) Imams the forth, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth were born by a servant.
The marriage between the great Prophet (SAW) and other Imams of Ahlul-Bait (AS) and the servants shows the honorable attitude of Islam towards women.
Moreover Imamate of the sons of these pious ladies also is the sign of removal of all the prejudice and humiliation from the female servants (Kanizan). It also shows opposition of Islam toward the wrong social customs.
At the time of the appearance of the Prophet (SAW), the society was not ready from social and cultural point of view to accept fighting against and denying slavery all of a sudden. In this reason, Islam started to fight against slavery little by little, and then it could prepare the condition to destroy it.
One of the Islamic rules was that if a servant got a child from her master, she would call “Omme Walad”. She should not be sold. She was like one of her master’s wife until he died and after his death she became free like other women. From this point of view the mother of Imam Jawad (AS) and the mother of Imam Hadi (AS) were “Omme Walad”. Two lucky and fortunate “Omme Walad”
Montihal-Amal, Vol.2, P.937, by Sheikh Abbass Qomi.
Montihal-Amal, Vol.2. P. 979.