It has come to our attention once again that the some non muslim governments and regimes are trying hard to recruit Muslims to spy on their fellow brethren. Obviously, they will give it other names so as to justify the spying and offer bountiful of rewards for such actions.
Islam forbids a Muslim to spy on another Muslim or on the people of Dhimmah whether to benefit himself or others In the Quran is general, Allah (SWT) says: “O you who Believe avoid much suspicion, indeed some suspicion is a sin. And spy not on one an other neither backbite one another.” [ 49:12]
It is reported by Abu Daoud and Imam Ahmad upon the authority of Al-Misswar Bin Makhrama that the Messenger Muhammad (saw) said: “Whoever earns and eats from exposing any secret of a Muslim, Allah will put fire in his mouth in Jahannam and whoever earns and clothes himself from exposing any
secret of a Muslim Allah will cloth him with clothes of fire in Jahannam.
In the same way that Islam forbids Muslims from spying on Muslims it also forbids Muslims from spying on non-Muslim citizens of the Islamic State (a State which we do not have today) because they are citizens having the same rights and duties as Muslims as far as religion, welfare and security are concerned. It is reported that the Messenger Muhammad (saw) said: “Whosoever harms a Dhimmi he harms me (i.e. the Prophet)”. And it is reported in Abu Daoud that the Messenger Muhammad (saw) also said: “Whoever oppresses a person who has a covenant with the State or designates responsibility for him beyond his limit, I will stand against him on the day of Judgement.” Consequently, Islam has made working with such spying services one of the biggest sins.
In conclusion: it is prohibited and a SIN for a Muslim to spy on a Muslim or a non-Muslim citizen.