Category Archives: Muḥammad al-Mahdī (born 868) (Arabic: محمد ال

Imam-e-Zaman (A.S.) in the Mirror of Dua-e-Nudba

Imam-e-Zaman (A.S.) in the Mirror of Dua-e-Nudba

‘Dua’ means ‘to call or to seek help’. ‘Nudba’ means to cry or wail. The Shia books of traditions lay great stress upon ‘Dua’. Dua is the weapon of the believer, the essence of belief and the connection between the Creator of the universe and his slaves. One of the treasure of Duas is a pearl, known as Dua-e-Nudba. It is an important and authentic Dua. It’s deep meaning penetrates to the depths of the heart. This is enough proof that these are not the words of an ordinary person. They are uttered by the personality who has connection with the celestial world (Aalam-e-Malakoot). Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (r.a.) has quoted this Dua in ‘Zaad-ul-Maad’ from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.). It is for the Imam of the time. And Muhammad bin Ali bin Abi Khura has quoted this dua from the book of Muhammad bin Husain bin Sufyan Bazoofari, from Imam-e-Asr. Apart from this, great Shia scholar Sayed Raziuddin bin Tawoos has mentioned it in his book, “Iqbal” on page no.295 to 299. Muhammad bin Jafar Mashadi Haeri has recorded it in book Al-Mazaan (Dua no.107). Qutb Rawandi in Al-Mazaar also records it and so does Allamah Majlisi in ‘Zaad-ul-Maad’ and ‘Beeharul Anwaar’. Shaykh Abbas Qummi too has narrated it in his book, ‘Mafatihul Janan’.

Let us see how the magnificent personality of Imam-e-Asr (a.s.) is introduced in this Dua:

“Where is the Last Proof of Allah. The one who is a link of the chain of guidance of the purified progeny of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) without whose presence this system cannot remain?”

The word ‘Baqiyatullah’ is used here. It is from the verse of the Holy Quran

“What remains with Allah is better for you if you are believers.”

(Surah Hud, Verse 86)

It is evident that the world cannot be bereft of the Proof of Allah. And the one from the progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) remaining of this earth is only our Imam Hazrat Mahdi (a.s.). It is reported in the traditions,

“If the Proof of Allah is not present the earth will sink.”

The earth is still remaining as it was. This proves the existence of a divine proof.

“Where is the One who will exterminate the followers of injustice ?”

Beginning from this sentence to the end of this article are various prophecies regarding Imam Mahdi (a.s.). The point to be noted here is that Imam-e-Zaman (a.s.) will not at all tolerate any kind of injustice. Whether it is the injustice against one’s own self i.e. sin or it is against the rights of someone else. Because the last representative of Allah is to establish the scales of justice and equity.

Husain ibn Khalid says that he asked Imam Ali Ibne Musa Al-Reza (a.s.):

“O son of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) who is the ‘Qaem’ (one who will rise) among you, the Ahle Bait (a.s.)?” He replied, “Qaem is my fourth lineal descendant. Son of the chief of the maids of Allah (Janab Narjis Khatoon). Allah will through him purify the earth from injustice and tyranny. And when he would reappear the earth will be illuminated by his radiance (light). He will establish scales of justice among the people. Thus no one will oppress anyone.”

Where is that venerated personality who is awaited to correct all kinds of weaknesses and vices?”

Unlike the other sects of Islam, it is the Shias of today who are distancing themselves from (religious) knowledge. Personal opinions are given the garb of religious authenticity. Personal view points are expressed as the elements of Islamic doctrine. And we accept all these without testing their authenticity and credibility. The learned scholars are stunned, the Maraaje stupefied. Not knowing what to do. A believer is being degraded and we are amused by it.

People of loose morals, the wealthy and rich are giving opinions regarding religious matters, and we are prepared to offer them co-operation. The school of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) is sidelined by the surrounding vices and evil deeds and we are immersed in the sleep of carelessness. What could be worse than this sloth and betrayal of religion. Seeing all these bad deeds of us all, a believer man fervently prays to Allah, “O Lord! where is Your last representative whom you have given the good news. And waiting for whom is prescribed as the best form of worship. Send him among us urgently so that he can correct the weaknesses and the wrong ways of humanity and the religion from the society. These shortcomings and vices which are the causes of the sorry state of the believers.

‘Where is the one who is the abode of hope, one who will put an end to the oppression and injustice?”

The word used in the metaphor means that in which hope is reposed. When the people of the world would be disappointed by each and every kind of government they will have only one last hope. This hope is the hope in the institution of Imamat or in the meritorious personality of Imam-e-Zaman (a.s.).

“Where is the treasure (of Allah), one who will rejuvenate the obligatory commands and the recommended one?”

Yes, Imam-e-Asr (a.s.) is that treasure whom Allah has held back so that when the obligatory commands and the recommended actions are diseased by the germs of doubts, objections and misunderstandings, Imam (a.s.) will reappear and enable it, to have a purified life. After this, the Islamic commands, optional and obligatory, would be carried out in the correct form and with sincerity. The belief would be so much purified that no one would dare to ignore any religious command, either obligatory or recommended.

“Where is the One who is chosen to impart a new life to the Islamic world and to rejuvenate the Shariat law of Mustafa (s.a.w.a.)?”

His reappearance will imbibe a new life in the Islamic world. The shariat would be followed correctly. There would be neither discord nor any disagreement. The following verse would be fully acted upon:

“And Hold fast by the Covenant of Allah altogether and be not divided.”

(Surah Ale Imran, Verse 102)

“Where is the one, who, it is hoped, will revive the Quran and its laws ?”

True, when Imam-e-Zaman (a.s.) would explain the ambiguous verses in the light of the unambiguous or the clear ones. At this time people of the world would become aware as to who are the ones “firmly rooted in knowledge”.

Who is the repository of all the knowledge of all the “land” and the “seas”? At this time the world would listen to the commentary of the manifest book by the manifested light. The divine mufassir (exegist of the Quran) would be listened to with attention and whole heartedly believed upon.

“Where is the One who will enliven the Islamic sciences and the teachers of religious education?”

In the last part of the time, the religious scholars and the Islamic knowledge are looked down on. The influence of wealth and self and power is stronger. In such a corrupted atmosphere the successor of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) would expound the meaning of the tradition,

“I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.”

‘Where is the One who would destroy oppression and tyranny of the oppressors?”

“Where is the One who will raise the edifices of polytheism and hypocrisy to the ground?”

Today the monotheistic world is attacked by all sorts of doubts and misunderstandings. Polytheism and hypocrisy are on the look out to revile Islam and obliterate its name from the world, so that the people would begin to detest its name. But according to the divine promise all the evil designs of the satans will be useless. The promise is as follows:

“He is the One who sent His Prophet with guidance and the true religion, that He may make it overcome the religions, all of them, though the polytheist may be averse.”

(Surah Saff, Verse 9)

Moreover only the worship of the true God shall remain. Our Imam would study the intention of the people and give his judgment. So if any hypocrite thinks that he is living in the 1st century of Islam, he would be absolutely degraded.

“Where is the One who will destroy those who transgress and commit evil, those who are immersed in sins and those who raise their heads (against the affair of Allah?).

“Where is the One who will distend the branches of misguidance and disputes?”

“Where is the Destroyer of the signs of (evil) disease and egoistic tendencies?”

In the government of the Imam (a.s.) no one will be able to carry with him the diseases of hatred, malice and hostility. Nor will anyone be able to follow his selfish desires. First Imam (a.s.) will try to correct these people but if they still do not improve then Imam (a.s.) will put an end to their existence.

“Where is the severer of the ropes of falsehood and calumniation?”

These will no place for falsehood, deceit and cunning in the government of Hazrat Mahdi (a.s.). It will be a rule whose foundation has been laid by Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.). The only difference would be that in this government there would be no place for people like Talha and Zubair.

“Where is the Destroyer of the vicious and disobedient people?”

The quality of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) that will become apparent after the reappearance will be to put to sword anyone who dares to disobey Allah as also the traitors and the transgressors. For in his government only the Quranic law and the divine commands will be followed. No one will be able to offer any excuses.

“Where is the Eradicator of the followers of obstinacy and misguidance and the renegade?”

“Where is the One who honors the friends and degrades the enemy ?”

The word Awliya (friend) in this sentence is taken from ‘Maula’ (master). Thus whoever accepts the mastership of Imam (a.s.), will be honored by him (Imam (a.s.)). But whosoever does not, he will have to face degradation.

“Where is the Accumulator of the words of piety?”

The term ‘Kalima’ (word) is also used in the Quran to mean people. For eg. Hazrat Isa (a.s.) is mentioned as ‘Kalima’. In other words the companions and the helpers of Imam-e-Asr (a.s.) will be only the pious and abstentious ones. Not those who are sinful and disobedient. As the Quran has declared: “The hereafter is only for those who guard (against evil).

“Where is the Gate of Allah through which all should enter ?”

It means that whoever wishes to enter the world of knowledge and faith then he should do so only through the door of the purified Ahle Bait (a.s.). If anyone prefers for himself any other path, then he will surely be led astray.

“Where is the countenance of Allah through which the friends attend towards him?”

Every member of Holy Ahle Bait (a.s.) is a mirror of divine qualities (Face of Allah). It means the countenance of Allah. Obviously Allah does not possess a ‘face’ but it only means that whoever wants to turn towards Allah and wishes to have an intermediary to Allah can do so only through the Proof of Allah [Imam Mahdi (a.s.)]. Since the Imam is in occultation to have belief in him and to attend to him becomes all the more meritorious.

The following tradition of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) also supports this argument:

“O Ali! In the last period there will be a people, most amazing in belief and the greatest in faith. They shall be those who will not have seen the Prophet of Allah and the Proof of Allah (Imam Mahdi (a.s.) will be hidden from them. The foundation of their belief shall be upon only certain writings.”

“Where is the Means which is stretching from the earth to the sky?”

If the universe becomes bereft of the “Proof of Allah’ it will be annihilated at once. For the Proof of Allah is the axis of the universe. He is that Perfect Man through whose grace the worlds derive their nourishment from the Almighty Creator (Allah).

“Where is the Master of the Day of victory and the One who will spread the flag of guidance?”

At this point the reciter of this Dua expresses a strange of melancholy that for how long does he have to bear the degradations which he has to suffer during the occupation? And when will these insults come to an end and the standard of truth raised upon the world?

“Where is the unites of the companions of virtue and divine pleasure?”

“Where is the Avenger of the blood of prophets and the children of the Prophets?”

“Where is the seeker of revenge for the blood of the martyred ones of Karbala?”

Undoubtedly, Imam (a.s.) must be weeping in sadness when he reaches this sentence. The murderers of Bam Israel used to slay up to seventy prophets in one night yet they got respite. But the tragedy of Karbala was the culmination of atrocities by the accursed Yazeed. The like of which is not to be found in the history of mankind. We all weep when these incidents are related to us by the fallible speakers. But the infallible Imam (a.s.) himself witnesses the carnage with his tear-filled eyes. He (Imam (a.s.)) says in Ziaarat-e-Nahiya:

“Then O my oppressed grandfather! Certainly I will wail for you morning and evening and I shed tears of blood for you.”

Doubtlessly the prime objective of Imam-e-Zarnan (a.s.) is to avenge the blood of Imam Husain (a.s.).

‘Where is the Triumphant one (who will overcome) over one who transgressed against him and maligned him ?”

“Where is the distressed one who will be answered when he supplicates?”

It is clear from this sentence that the ‘distressed one’ mentioned in the following verse of Quran is Imam Mahdi (a.s.):

“Or, who answers the distressed one when he calls upon Him…”

(Surah Naml, Verse 62)

And he is constantly praying to Allah for us. When a common person is compelled to express pity upon the deplorable condition of the present Islam and Muslims then how much aggrieved will be that Imam who is aware of all the happenings, whether apparent or not?

“Where is the president of all creatures, who is both the beneficent and God fearing?”

“Where is the son of the chosen (al-Mustafa) Prophet and the son of Ali-al-Murtuza?”

“And the son of Khadijat-ul-Gharra (the Luminous), and the son of Fatematul-Kubra (the Great)?

In this brief article we have discussed only those sentences of Dua Nudba which speak exclusively about Imam Mahdi (a.s.) After pondering over these we derive some conclusions. Foremost being that if we wish that the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) be hastened then we must recite the Dua every Friday. But it should not be only mechanical. We should recite in as if our beloved is away from us and we are restless due to his separation. In fact the purity of intention and constancy is necessary. The reappearance of Imam (a.s.) will not be only by wishing and praying. But it should be accompanied by pure intention and good deeds.

Another point that is derived is that when Imam Mahdi (a.s.) will reappear he will put an end to all kinds of injustice, oppression, falsehood, tyranny, shamelessness and devilish deeds. He will fill the earth with justice and equity. So, if any of us has any of these bad qualities we must try to correct ourselves immediately. Because Imam (a.s.) will strictly apply the divine commands and would spare none.

The third important thing is that the companions or the helpers of Imam Mahdi (a.s.) could be only those who are pious, who offer prayers regularly, follow the teachings of the Quran and obey Allah. If we do not possess these qualities then there is no place for us in the camp of the Qaem-e-Ale Muhammad (Imam Mahdi (a.s.)).

Let us then resolve that we shall pray night and day for the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (a.s.). We shall do everything which takes us nearer to the Imam (a.s.). And avoid all such acts which would take us away from our Master Imam Mahdi (a.s.). So if we ponder upon this we would realize that there is no one who cares for us except this benevolent Imam. We should not dissatisfy him with our deeds. Because if our Imam (a.s.) turns away from us (disregards us) then we shall have no shelter.




zeeshan.jpgBy Maulana Zeeshan Abidi

(Panel Ulema of AQYouth)


The benefits of Imam-e-Zaman’s existence from our view-point (i.e. Shi’ite view-point) are of two types:
Firstly, Hazrat like other people is alive and the common people derive benefit from his existence whether present or absent and whether apparent or concealed.
Secondly, the benefits which is derived from Hazrat’s occupation (of the earth) was previously reasoned that due to fear and insecurity it is not obligatory for Hazrat to carry out the second type. However benefits of the first type will necessarily be derived from Hazrat’s existence.

The simile which has come in the tradition of Jabir-ibn-Abdullah Ansari is as follows:
‘Imam is like a sun hidden behind the clouds’
This simile is one of the most elegant and beautiful kinds of simile.

Various benefits and effects are derived from the sun’s existence even though it may be covered by a cloud. Moreover, other benefits are derived from its rays if it is not covered by a cloud or rather anything else. Imam too is the same.

I believe, this comparison has been made from two aspects and there exists two reasons for this (one aspect when the sun is covered by clouds and the other aspect when the sun is not covered by any object and its light glimmers) Deriving benefit from the sun and making use of it by the living and rather the non-living creatures is something prevalent whether it is manifest or concealed under the clouds. Every creature derives its own pleasure and share from it with the difference that when it is manifest and glimmering, the benefit derived is more than when it is covered and concealed. Imam (A.S.) too is like the sun in these two afore-said cases.

This is the view of the Shia-Imamiyahs about Imam (A.S.). However the Sunnis believe that the benefits and effects derived from Imam’s existence is confined to the second type (i.e. non-absence of Imam).
To this, we reply as such:
Some of the Sunnis reckon Mahdi’s occultation to mean that he is invisible and cannot be seen. However, just as mentioned before, their reckoning is far from truth. Rather, his occultation means that he cannot be individually recognized and seen.
Thus, it has come down in some traditions that after Mahdi’s emergence people will say:- ‘We used to see him before too.’

Verily Mahdi is absent (amongst us) but attends the gatherings and meetings. He also speaks to the travellers and other people. Rather, very often he presents himself during the Haj season.

He wears the ‘Ehram’ (pilgrim’s garb), recites the call of ‘Labbaik’, performs the ‘tawaaf’ (circumbulation) and concludes his Haj by visiting his honoured grand-father and great fathers’ shrines especially at times of special ‘Ziarats’. Thus Mahdi is present amongst the Islamic community but is not physically recognized.

One the contrary, we say: Who can dare say that during the major occultation it is not possible to come in contact with Mahdi (A.S.) whereas historical and other books provide us with evidences that a section of people have received the honour of seeing and meeting him. This matter is not inconsistent with the tradition which says: ‘If anyone claims that he has seen Mahdi, they reject his saying’.

This is because by context of the first part of the tradition it only means that anyone who claims the special deputyship should be denied.Rather we can say: Mahdi is one of the members of society and rather the most important member. It is possible that he acts upon his responsibility even though it may not be obligatory for him.

Verily, it is possible that Mahdi may come in contact with the Kings, rulers, princes and ministers and make some recommendations to them about reforms, maintenence of order and running of the affairs whether they follow his recommendation or not.He sits with the Jurists, scholars, writers and the learned people and discusses with them such topics as divine theology, moral rectifications and literary matters. In every field, he guides them towards the truth and right way irrespective of whether they act upon his sayings or not. He meets the traditionists, historians, gene and scholars of ‘Rijal’ and guides them to the true saying, truthfulness of the concerned matter, authenticity of relation (of narration) and their incorrectness irrespective of whether they approve his sayings or not.

Talks takes place with the preachers, inviters (towards the Divine path), clergymen and guides too and he reveals to them the way of reaching their objective in an easier way be it they act upon it or not.

He visits the helpless, needy, sick and afflicted people and fulfills the wishes of the needy and cures the sick. Mahdi (A.S.) strives for all these affairs without being recognized and he is never stingy in doing good to others. So it’s absurd to say: How people benefit from the hidden Imam!?

Verily, very often Mahdi (A.S.) replies to matters having to do with principles and other secondary matters; very often he solves the religious or worldly affairs; very often he cures the sick; how often he delivers the poor; very often he helps the helpless; very often he quenches the thirsty and very often he holds the hands of the disabled.

This book and other books which have been written by reliable scholars (who were not recognizing each other and were living in different places and different times) contain such evidences which bear testimony to the truthfulness of what we have written. A person, after going through the particulars and contexts of these kind of evidences will gain certainty in the veracity of some of them.


zeeshan.jpgBy Maulana Zeeshan Abidi
(Panel Ulema of  AQYouth)

With regards to Mahdi’s fear and occultation and in the light of what we have mentioned before, there remain a few questions which is worth mentioning:

First Question: Why Allah, the Powerful doesn’t hinder Hazrat’s enemies from killing him!?
answer: God has commanded the Creation of hindrance which is not incompatible with duty and responsibility i.e. the commandment for obedience, assistance and submissiveness and forbiddance from disobedience and enmity of Hazrat Mahdi. However not forming any hindrance between Mahdi and his enemies is because it is incompatible with duty and renders the reward and punishment as null and void. Rather, such a hindrance will give rise to mischief and this cannot be the consequence of God.

 Question: Why is Mahdi (A.S.) absent amongst the people and why has he isolated himself from them considering that his great fathers were present amongst the people!?
Reply: Mahdi’s very foundation is based on emerging with the sword and revolting for God’s sake but such was not so in the case of his great fathers. Presence of Mahdi would expose him to danger especially when it is well-known and famous that Hazrat is waiting for an opportunity. Also it is a well-known fact that whenever Mahdi passed away there was another to succeed him as against Mahdi who if killed there would be no one to succeed him.

 Question: I f Mahdi’s occultation is due to fear of his enemies, then why has he concealed himself from his friends!?
Answer: If there existed for Hazrat’s friends and companions a channel to meet and visit him then, as a rule it was certain for his whereabouts to be discovered.

 Question: Reply to the third question is true only if the entire Shias are successful in meeting Hazrat. However if such a meeting is possible for only a particular group amongst Imam’s friends, then his whereabout will not be discovered.
Answer: Any secret which becomes known to more than two will no longer remain a secret.

Question: Why didn’t Hazrat’s minor occultation continue in the very manner in which the special deputies used to serve him!?
Answer: The non-continuation of Hazrat’s minor occultation may have been for two reasons:
Firstly that deputyship from Imam’s side is especially the post of special deputyship is a very high and lofty position. Since a group amongst the power-seekers falsely claimed the position of deputyship during the last days of Hazrat’s occultation, the door of special deputyship was hence closed.
Secondly the special deputyship too at that time was kept secret and hidden and except for some specific people, none were aware of it. If the minor occultation had continued and the position of special deputyship would become known, Hazrat’s deputies too would have been exposed to danger.


For our Master, Mahdi – the Expected one, there has been two occultations: The minor occultation and the major occultation.
The minor occultation started from the time of Hazrat’s birth and continued till the end of the special deputyship which lasted for seventy-four years.

The major occultation commenced after the minor occultation and will continue as long as God Wills Hazrat to emerge and revolt with his might.

In the book of «Esbath-ul-Wasiyah», Ali-ibn-Hussein-ibn-Ali Masoudi says:
‘It is narrated that Imam Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) disappeared from the Shias’ views but for a small group of his special Shias. When the affairs of Imamate were entrusted to Imam Hassan Askari, he used to converse with his special circle of Shias and others from behind the curtain except when he was mounted and would travel towards the Kings house.
Imam Askari (A.S.) and his father were acting in this manner so as to prepare the ground for Hazrat Mahdi’s concealment. This was so that the Shias would become familiar with the matter of occultation and would not deny it and would become habituated with Imam’s absence and concealment.

Verily, right from the time of Amir-ul-Mumineen Ali (A.S.) till the period of Imam Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) and Imam Hassan Askari (A.S.) it was customary for the Shias to meet their Imam whenever they wished. If they were deprived of this bounty all at once then doubt and hesitation would have overtaken them. Rather the faith of some of them would have become shaky. Thus Imam Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) and Imam Askari (A.S.) adopted this path as mentioned by Masoudi so that the Shias would gradually and gradually become

 acquainted with Imam’s concealment.

Imam Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) and Imam Hassan Askari (A.S.) took up this excellent path for this very reason. Strict alertness of the rulers who were contemporary to the afore-mentioned two Imams confirm this matter. This resulted in fewer meetings and contacts with them especially so in the case of well-known Shii’tes.

The apparent glory and magnificience of the afore-said two Imams (A.S.) and the great number of servants and slaves and their greatness and eminence (which would naturally become the cause of fewer meetings of the common Shias and rather their special Shias except at fixed and special times) too confirms the matter of occultation.

Later on, the policy of Bani-Abbass changed with regards to the twelve Imams and their policy demanded respect and honour of the Imams and this path was first put into practice by Ma’mun Abbassid.

Those who cast a glance over history of Hazrat Ali-ibn-Musa ar-Ridha Imam Muhammad Taqi, Imam Ali an-Naqi and Imam Hassan Askari will realize the way of association of the Caliphs with Imams. This is because they believed in the greatness and magnificience of Imams (A.S.) and had kept at their disposal house, goods, feather, dress, servants, slaves and wealth for such motives which they had in mind. The main motive of the Caliphs, as per their own imagination was to receive more ease and attention when in the company of the the Imam especially so in the case of the afore-said two Imams.

The reason why Imam Ali an-Naqi concealed himself from the views of the Shias on much lesser occasions than Imam Hassan Askari (A.S.) was that there was to be two occultation for our master Mahdi – One was the minor occultation during which period the deputies and special representatives of Mahdi (A.S.) were having access to Hazrat until the time when the Shias became familiar with the absence and concealment of Imam (A.S.) and the period of major occultation started wherein the special deputyship was cut off and unlike the Shias who had the privilege of meeting Hazrat’s great fathers, none have the opportunity of meeting the Imam officially.

Ghaibat (occultation) of the last Imam (AS)

Ghaibat (occultation) of the last Imam (AS)

zeeshan.jpg By Maulana Zeeshan abidi

(Panel ulema AQYouth)






Mohammad Yaqub Al-Kulayni has said that ghaibat is a test from Allah to test the
steadfastness of belief in Imam.
If he is to remain in Ghaibat, what is the use of his existence?
Belief creates hope giving strength to the oppressed.
It is a deterrent for the committing of injustice as one is always aware of the
constant presence of the Imam.

Why Ghaibat al-Sughra?

To make the Shias used to approaching scholars instead of Imam himself. It started
during the time of the 10th Imam who was under almost constant house arrest in
Samarra and continuing through.

GHAIBAT AL-SUGHRA (160 A.H. to 329 A.H.)
During Ghaibut-us-Sughra, the Imam (AS) appointed four deputies/representatives to
represent him among the people. After the death of the fourth deputy, the Imam (AS)
went into Ghaibut al-Kubra (major occultation). This was on the 10th Shawal 329 A.H.

The 4 representatives were :

1. Uthman bin Saeed Umravi (AR)

It is said that at the age of 11 years he was a servant in the house of the 9th Imam
later to enjoy the confidence of Imam. He occupied the same position of trust with
the 10th and 11th Imam who told their Shias that after him they would not see the
12th Imam and would have to obey Uthman. After the 11th Imam’s martyrdom Uthman
moved to Baghdad and disguised as a butter seller he set up the collection of khums
for Imam. He served the 12th Imam for 5 years and received a letter near his death
from Imam (AS) telling him to appoint his son Mohammed as the next representative.

2. Mohammad bin Uthman bin Saeed Umravi (AR)

He continued in his fathers footsteps also acting as a butter seller. He managed to
keep Imam’s existence a secret from the Abbasids until the early years of the reign
of Al-Mutadid. The rulers then started searching hard for Imam and killed countless
mu’mineen with even the slightest resemblance to Imam. Spies were set up to probe
the khums network. Imam issued an order for Shias not to take his name nor show
mas’ala of khums to anyone until absolutely sure of them. As instructed by Imam he
appointed Husayn bin Rawh as the next representative after his death in 305 A.H. He
served the Imam (AS) for 40 years.
3. Husayn bin Rawh (AR)
His kuniyya was Abul Qasim. His sociable nature won him respect even from the
Ahlul-Sunnah. He managed to keep his activities a secret from the rulers whilst
maintaining good relations with them. It is to him that we address the ‘Arizah’ to be
delivered to Imam. He served faithfully until he died in Sha’ban 326 a.h. revealing
the appointment of Ali bin Mohammad Samry after him. He served for 21 years.
4. Ali bin Mohammad Samry (AR)
He served for only three years. A week before his death he received a

letter from the Imam (AS) telling him of his forthcoming death and that there would
be no representative after him and that Imam (AS) was now going into
Ghaibat al-Kubra (major occultation). Imam (AS) would then appear when Allah(swt)
wills it. Ali bin Mohammad Samry (AR) died on 15th Shabaan 329 A.H. after serving
for 3 years.

GHAIBAT AL-KUBRA (329 A.H. to present)

Imam’s ghaibat is described by the Aimma like that of Prophet Yusuf (AS) who was
amongst his brothers yet they did not recognise him.

Imam is known to meet a believer on 3 occasions:
1. At the time of trouble.
2. He is present at every Hajj.
3. He attends the funeral of every believer who has no religious
obligations pending on him/her e.g. Khums.
During this time he continues to guide. Numerous letters have been
received from him by (to quote a few) Ishaq bin Yaqub, Sheikh Mufeed…
It is reported that 30 people all over the world meet with him

Responsibilities During Ghaibat al-Kubra

1. Pray for the safety of Imam (AS) at all time.
2. Be in waiting for Imam (AS) at all times.
3. Give Sadaqa for Imam (AS).
4. Pray for his re-appearance.
5. Whenever faced with difficulty (whether small or big) ask for assistance from
Imam (AS).
6. Whenever his name is heard or recited, one should stand if possible, send salaams
on him, put hand on head and bow.
7. If possible perform Hajj/Umra for Imam (AS). (Hajj-After own Wajibat)
It is customary among the Muhibban al-Ahle-Bait (AS) to write a letter of
Imam al-Zaman (AS) in the early morning of 15th Shaban. This letter is known as
Arizah and is written with a lot of love and care using safron as ink and wrapping
the letter in pure clay or flour. In the letter, momineen and mominaat present their
salutations and praises to the Imam (AS) and also write their problems and worries.
This wrapped letter is then thrown usually in lakes or river or ocean in the name of
one of his representatives (one of the 4 described above – usually Hussain
ibn al-Roh) recalling the methodology which was in place during the Ghaibat al-Sughra.

It is a strong Shiite belief that the letter reaches the Imam (AS) and he addresses
the worries and problems of his shiites becausse they are resolved in many many
cases. That is the reason why this practice has continued for long period and is
still very emotionally and religiously in practice





Sunni Documantation on Imam Mahdi (AS)

For our respected Sunni brothers, there are six authentic collections of traditions based on the Sunni standards for verifying the authenticity of a tradition. These six books are: Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sahih al-Tirmidhi, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan Abu Dawud, and Sahih al-Nisa’i. I just quote few traditions from these six books to prove that a knowledgeable Sunni brother/sister can NOT deny that:

1. Mahdi is going to come in the last days to make a universal Government,
2. Mahdi is from the Ahlul-Bayt of Prophet,
3. Mahdi is from the children of Fatimah (AS), the daughter of Prophet,
4. Mahdi is different than Jesus (the messiah),
5. Jesus will be one of the followers of Imam Mahdi and prays behind him.

The following are only some of the traditions out of many, about Imam Mahdi, and are ALL traditions that the Sunnis admit to their authenticity and existence:

The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Even if the entire duration of the world's
existence has already been exhausted and only one day is left before
Doomsday (Day of judgment), Allah will expand that day to such a
length of time, as to accommodate the kingdom of a person out of my
Ahlul-Bayt who will be called by my name. He will then fill out the
earth with peace and justice as it will have been full of injustice
and tyranny before then."

Sunni References:

1. Sahih Tirmidhi, V2, P86, V9, PP 74-75
2. Sanan Abi Dawud, V2, P7
3. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, V1, P376 & V3, P63
4. Mustadrak al-Sahihain, by al-Hakim, V4, P557
5. Al-Majma', by Tabarani, P217
6. Tahdhib al-Thabit, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, V9, P144
7. Sawaiq al-Muhraqa, Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, P167
8. Fathul Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, V7, P305
9. al-Tathkirah, by al-Qurtubi, P617
10. al-Hawi, by al-Suyuti, V2, pp165-166
11. Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah, by al-Zurqani, V5, P348
12. Fathul Mughith, by al-Sakhawi, V3, P41
13. al-Hafidh Abul-Hasan Muhammad Ibn al-Husayn al-Sijistani al-Aburi
14. al-Shafi'i (d. 363/974). (who said the above hadith is related by
numerous authorities and were spread far and wide by many narrators).
and also in the works of Ibn Habban, Abu Nua'ym, Ibn Asakir, etc.


The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Al-Mahdi is one of us, the members of the
household (Ahlul-Bayt)."

Sunni reference: Sunan Ibn Majah, V2, Tradition #4085

As we see Imam Mahdi is from the Ahlul Bayt of Prophet Muhammad, so he can not be Jesus (the Messiah; al-Maseeh). Mahdi and Messiah are two different personalities but they come at the same time, Mahdi as Imam and Jesus as his follower. The following tradition clearly mentions that Imam Mahdi is one of the children of the daughter of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF):

The Messenger of Allah said: "Al-Mahdi is one of the children of
Fatimah (the Prophet's daughter)."

Sunni reference: Sunan Ibn Majah, V2, Tradition #4086

Special specifications of Imam Mahdi (AS)

Shia believe that Imam Mahdi is the only son of Imam Hasan al-Askari (the 11th Imam) who was born on 15th of Sha’ban 255/869 in Samarra, Iraq. He became the God-appointed Imam when his father was martyred in 260/874. Imam Mahdi went into occultation (disappearance; leaving among people while they can’t recognize him) at the same time. He will re-appear when Allah wills. More specifically:

His title is “al-Mahdi” which means “The Guided One.”

His name is Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan (AS).

On the other hand, the majority of Sunnis are not so sure that he has been born yet. They believe he will be born some time before his mission. The name of Imam Mahdi is Muhammad (which is the same as what Shia believe). There is however one single Sunni report which adds that the name of the father of Imam Mahdi is Abdullah.Now let us see what is the argument of each side:

Question 1:Some Sunnis question Shia that how a five year old boy can become an Imam for the people? And why attribute all this importance to him?

Answer 1:First, we must question whether or not in the history of religion, the phenomenon of young leaders has a parallel. Undoubtedly, there is. The Quran strikes two examples which are worthy of mentioning:We have the example of Jesus (AS) who became Prophet and spoke people when he was a baby in the cradle:”But she pointed to the baby.  They said: `How can we talk to one who is a CHILD in the cradle?’ He said: `I am indeed a servant of Allah. He HAS GIVEN me Scripture and ASSIGNED me a Prophet, and He has made

me blessed wherever I be, and has enjoined on me Prayer and zakat
as long as I live.'" (Quran 19:29-31)

Thus Jesus (AS) became Prophet and received revelation and book while he was less than two years old!

Furthermore, in few verses before, Quran mentions the case of Prophet Yahya (John), to whom Allah (SWT) said:

"`O Yahya! Take hold of the Book with might:' And We gave him the
appointment (of prophethood) in his CHILDHOOD." (Quran 19:12)

So if a two-year old boy can become a prophet and receives revelation, then why can not a five-year old boy become Imam?

Have you ever heard of prodigies? They are kids between the ages of four to 18 that exhibit signs of exceptional skills that are usually found in highly qualified adults only. Here are some examples from history:

“John Stuart Mill (1806-73), a 19th-century English philosopher and economist, advocated utilitarian reforms in his many writings and as member of Parliament. A child prodigy, Mill had mastered Greek by the age of 7 and studied economics at the age of 13. His works express his social thought with great clarity and thoroughness. (The Bettmann Archive)”

“The French thinker, mathematician, and scientist Blaise Pascal, b. June 19, 1623, d. Aug. 19, 1662, has been credited not only with imaginative and subtle work in geometry and other branches of mathematics, but with profoundly influencing later generations of theologians and philosophers. A prodigy in mathematics, Pascal had mastered Euclid’s Elements by the age of 12. Pascal invented and sold the first calculating machine (1645).”

“Wolfgang was the greatest musical child prodigy who ever lived. He began composing minuets at the age of 5 and symphonies at 9.”

“Beethoven’s own talent was such that at the age of 12 he was already an assistant to the organist Christian Gottlob Neefe, with whom he studied.”

“Sarah Caldwell, born Maryville, Mo., Mar. 6, 1924, is a conductor and producer. A child prodigy in both mathematics and music, before reaching the age of ten.”

While not exhaustive, the list serves the purpose of demonstrating that this phenomenon occurs naturally among normal human beings from all walks of life. So scientifically speaking, it is quite possible that a child demonstrates abilities that adults can not. Also religiously speaking anything Allah desires will happen no matter how strange. Indeed Allah (SWT) asserts unequivocally in Quran that if He wanted something, all He has to do is to say to it: “Be! and it will be!”.

Question 2:Every body is mortal. How can he live so long?

Answer 2:Yes, in fact Imam Mahdi will die too. But the difference is the length of life in this world. In fact Quran and the prophetic traditions tell us that some people have had/are having long life in this world. So it is possible to see this phenomena again.Are you aware that according to the Quran (see 29:14), Prophet Noah has just been prophet for 950 years? In fact, he was alive even more than that because we should add his age before prophethood to the above number. Who knows how much it was.

Do you agree that Prophet Jesus (AS) is still alive? He is in fact 1,994 years old now. Of course, he is not living on Earth right now; he is living in the Heavens. But according to Muslim’s belief, he will come back to Earth, and will pray behind Imam al-Mahdi (AS).

Do you agree that al-Khidr (AS) is still alive? Quran mentions his story with Moses (AS). He existed before the birth of the Prophet Moses (AS), so al-Khidr (AS) is now more than 3000 years old. He lives right here on this Earth, but we can not recognize him (fairly similar to the case of Imam Mahdi). He serves Allah (SWT) as one of His agents.

No doubt Allah has the ability to give a very long life, but He also has assigned a death time for every body (including the above mentioned individuals) which can be so soon or so late.

Moreover, scientifically speaking, there are NO objections whatsoever to the extended life span assertion. A group of scientists conducted a series of experiments at the Rockefeller Institute in New York in 1912 on certain “parts” of plants, animals, and humans. These scientists included Dr. Alex Carl, Dr. Jack Lope, and Dr. Warren Lewis and his wife, among others. Among the experiments conducted was one that directly treated the nerves, muscles, hearts, skin, and kidneys of human beings. These organs were not in a human body, they were independent organs that were perhaps donated for the experiment. It was concluded by the scientists that these “parts or organs” CAN continue to live almost indefinitely as long as they are nourished properly, and as long as they are shielded from external negative interactions like microbes and other obstacles that might inhibit the growth of these organs; furthermore, the assertion was made that the cells would continue to grow normally under the above conditions, and that the growth is directly related to the nourishment provided. Again, aging had no effect on these organs, and they grew every year without any signs of deterioration or aging. The scientists concluded that these organs will continue to grow as long as the patience of the scientists themselves is not exhausted, causing them to abandon the nourishment process.

Question 3:Where is Mahdi (AS) right now? Is he in cave?

Answer 3:Imam Mahdi disappeared in 260/874 when he became Imam. The last time that he was seen, was in the cellar of his father’s house in Samarra, Iraq. That is what is rumored regarding Shia that they believe Mahdi is in the cave!!!

Shia do NOT believe that Imam Mahdi is in the Cave or Cellar! He was just seen there for the last time. He can be anywhere Allah wishes. However one thing is clear is that he lives on the earth among people while people around him do not perceive.

Second, with regards to the occultation of al-Mahdi (AS), the Quran does NOT rule out such an occurrence at all. Again, the examples of Jesus (AS) and al-Khidr (AS), who are both in occultation, are worthy of mentioning.

Question 4:What about his mother? Provided that Shia is right in their assertion that al-Mahdi’s (AS) mother was a slave or bondwoman, isn’t it shameful that he (AS) should be born to a slave-girl?

Answer 4:The answer would be in the form of the following questions: Wasn’t Hagar (AS), the Prophet Abraham’s wife, a bondwoman? Did she not bear Isma’il (Ishmael) (AS), whom the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) is a direct descendant of? If it is acceptable for the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF), the Seal of Prophethood, to be a descendant of Isma’il (AS) who was born to a bondwoman, then why not al-Mahdi (AS)?

I need to mention that the birth of al-Mahdi (AS) was an event surrounded with secrecy, because the authorities (The Abbasids) knew that the Mahdi who is to bring about a revolution is going to be the son of Imam Askari, and were awaiting his coming, to capture him for execution. Owing to that, Imam Hasan Askari (AS), the Mahdi’s father, could not behave conspicuously by revealing who the mother of the Mahdi (AS) was. The Imam Mahdi’s mother was Narjis and was a roman slave who married to Imam al-Askari (AS). Notwithstanding, what has created the confusion among the critics of Shia is the fact that Imam al-Askari (AS) did not refer to her (AS) with one name. A variety of names were used in an effort to fool the authorities, and to prevent them from recognizing who she was. That was part and parcel of the plan to protect the Mahdi (AS). Had the father (AS) been slightly negligent in protecting his son, it is clear that al-Mahdi (AS) would not have survived. The story of birth of Imam Mahdi is like that of the Moses. All the women were being regularly inspected by female specialists of Abbasids to find out if anybody is pregnant. The Imam Mahdi’s mother did not have any sign of pregnancy to the last hours, similar to Moses’s mother. But no doubt that what Allah wishes will certainly take place.

Given these adverse conditions and hardships, the birth of the Imam (AS) was kept in utmost secrecy, that even the closest people to Imam al- Askari (AS), the father of the Mahdi (AS), did not know of the time of his (AS) birth. Only VERY FEW close associates were notified. The obvious contention is that the birth of al-Imam al-Mahdi (AS) constitutes a direct threat to the continuance of the corrupt government to rule. This situation is best understood when we refer back to the first few days of Islam when the Prophet (PBUH&HF) preached the religion in utmost secrecy among a few loyal followers. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) feared for the lives of these believers, and, as such, forbade them from revealing any information that might jeopardize the entire mission.

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The Analytical history of ImamMehdi (AJ) From his birth to the success (Audio)

The Analytical history of ImamMehdi (AJ) From his birth to the success

The image “” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.These lectures are summaries of various topics from the history of the 12th Imam (AJ) a book of Ayatollah Al-Sayyid Muhammad Al-Sadr who wrote an analytical historical research on the 12th Imam in four volumes. He named them as follows:

1. History of the Minor Occultation

2. History of the Major Occultation

3. The promised day

4. History after the appearance

The lectures will be given in the Islamic house of wisdom from 13th Sept. to 28th Sept. For first 15days of the holy month Of Ramzan By hujjatul Islam Shaikh Safder Razi

Lecture one: The Problems with the history

Lecture two: The Birth of Imam (AJ)

Lecture three: The birth of the Imam (AJ)


Lecture Four: Until the death of Imam Alaksari (AS)

Lecture Five:Minor occultation


Lecture Six: The Appointed Representatives of the Imam (AJ) 1


Lecture seven: The Appointed Representatives of the Imam (AJ) 2


Lecture eight: Attempts to capture him (AJ)


Lecture nine: Activities of the Imam (AJ) during the minor occultation

Lecture ten: The private life of Imam Mehdi (AJ) in major occultation

Lecture 11: meeting with people 1

Lecture 12: meeting with people 2

Lecture 13: Our responsibility in the major occultation

Lecture 14: The types of awaiting

Lecture 15: The signs of his appearance

May be Q&A on the 16th if I am here.

 Sheikh Safdar Razi Lecture 3 – Birth of Imam Mehdi Part 2

Sheikh Razi Lec. 5 – The Situation to the Minor Occultation

Sheikh Razi Lec 6 – The Appointed Reps of the Imam Part 1


Sheikh Razi Lec 6 – The Appointed Reps of the Imam Part 1

Sheikh Razi Lec 7 – The Appointed Reps of the Imam Part 2


Sheikh Razi Lecture 8 – Activites of the Minor Occultation


Sheikh Razi Lecture 11 – Meeting Imam Mehdi [aj] Part 1


Sheikh Razi Lec 13 – Responsibility In the Major Occultation

 Sheikh Razi Lec 14 – Types of Awaiting for Imam Mehdi [aj]


Safdar Razi. Ali
Director of Education Department
Imam Mahdi Association of Marjaeya, Inc. (IMAM)
The liaison office of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Al Sistani (MAP)
(313) 989-5589 tell
(313) 447-2037 fax