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Conversation of Angels with Imam Husain (A.S)


Shaikh Mufeed has narrated through his chain of transmitters, that Imam Ja’far as Sadiq (a.s.) said, that when Imam Husain (a.s.) left Madina, a group of Angels, having distinct marks, met him on the way.

(Ahlul Bayt News Agency) – They carried swords in their hands and had mounted the horses of Paradise. They came to Imam, saluted him and said, “O Allah’s Proof (Hujjah) upon the creatures after your Grandfather, Father and Brother! Allah the Glorious had rendered help to your Grandfather through our medium in many of his battles, and has now sent us to assist you.” Imam replied,
“The promised land is called Karbala, thus you may come to me there.”
They said, “O Proof of Allah! You may command whatever you desire and we will comply to it and obey you. If you fear the enemies we shall defend you against them.” Imam replied,
“They have no way upon me and they will not be able to hurt me until I reach my (destined) mausoleum.”

The army of genie in defense of Imam Husain (a.s.)

Numerous groups of Muslim genie came to Imam Husain (a.s.) and said, “O our Master! We are your adherents and helpers thus we shall fulfil your command, whatever it be. If you desire we will hault here and slay all your enemies.” Imam replied,

“May Allah reward you with goodness! Haven’t you read the Qur’an which was revealed to my Grandfather, wherein is stated:
“Wherever you be, death will overtake you, even if you be in towers (strong and) lofty.”
And it is stated,

“Those for whom slaughter was ordained would certainly have gone forth to the places where they (now) lie (slain).”

Then if I remain in this place, how would this unfortunate nation be tested and tried? And who will lay in my grave in Karbala. (On the day) When Allah the Glorious spread the earth, He chose that land for me. And has made it a place of refuge for my followers (Shi’ah) so that they might find peace thereunder in this world as well as the hereafter. Come to me on Saturday, for I shall be martyred in the end of the week on the tenth. No one from among my family, friends, brothers and relatives will remain alive after my death, my head will then be taken to Yazid.”

The genie said, “O friend of Allah! And O the son of the friend of Allah! If the obedience of your orders would not have been obligatory on us and killing would not have been unlawful, we would surely have killed all your enemies before they reach you.” Imam replied,
“By Allah! We are competent enough to kill them than you. But the intention is that one should be killed with (presenting valid) proofs and reasons, and should be guided with proofs and reasons.”

In other words, the Imam did not wish that they be destroyed before submitting his proofs unto them. (Here ends that which has been quoted in the book of Mohammad bin Abi Talib)

Dialogue of Umme Salma (a.s.) with Imam Husain (a.s.) during his journey
Allamah Majlisi says that I have read in some books, that when Imam Husain (a.s.) decided to leave Madina, Umme Salma (a.s.) came to him and said, “O my dear son! Do not aggrieve me by going towards Iraq. For I have heard your Grandfather say that my son Husain will be killed in Iraq at a place called Karbala.” Imam replied,
“O dear Grandmother! I too am aware of it and I shall be forcefully killed while there is no escape from it. By Allah! I know the day when I shall be killed and recognize my murderor besides being aware of the Mausoleum where I shall be buried. And I know all those people among my family, relatives and followers who shall die alongwith me. And I wish to show you the place where I shall be buried.”

Then he pointed towards Karbala and the land thereat arose and he showed her the places where he would be buried, where he would lay martyred, the site of his encampment, and the place where he would hault. When Umme Salma saw this she wept bitterly and offered all decree to the Almighty. Then Imam said,
“O Grandmother! Allah Almighty desires to see me killed and that my head be severed with cruelty and injustice. Besides (Allah) desires that my family and womenfolk be expelled, and my children oppressed, bare headed, arrested and bound in chains. And they would plead and call out for help, but none would come to their aid.”

In another tradition it is stated that Umme Salma told Imam Husain (a.s.) that, “I have with me some sand which your Grandfather had given and which lies in a bottle.” Imam replied,
“By Allah! I shall be killed even if I do not go to Iraq.”

Then he lifted a handful of earth (from the land of Karbala which had risen) and giving it to Umme Salma said, “Mix this with the sand in the bottle given to you by my Grandfather, when it turns into blood, know that I have been martyred.” (Here ends the quotation of Biharul Anwar).

Conversation of Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari with Imam Husain (a.s.)

Sayyed Bahrani in Madinatul Ma’ajiz quotes from Saqibul Manaqib, and others quote from Manaqibus Sua’da that Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari says, that when Imam Husain (a.s.) intended going towards Iraq, I came to his presence and said, “You are the son of the Prophet of Allah and one of his two endeared grand children. I do not hold any other opinion except that you too enter into a peace-treaty (with Yazid) as your brother had done with Mu’awiyah, and verily he was trustworthy and rightly guided.” Imam Husain replied,
“O Jabir! Whatever my brother did was ordained by Allah and the Prophet, and whatever I shall do too shall be according to the command of Allah and His Prophet. Do you wish that at this very moment I invite the Holy Prophet, Imam Ali, and my brother Hasan to testify regarding my action”?

Then Imam looked towards the heavens, suddenly I saw that the doors of heavens opened ajar and Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.s.), Imam Ali (a.s.), Imam Hasan (a.s.), Hazrat Hamza (a.s.), Hazrat Ja’far at Tayyar (a.s.) and (my uncle) Zaid descended from the heavens upon the earth. Seeing this I became frightful, when the Prophet said,
“O Jabir! Did not I inform you prior to Husain during the time of Hasan, that you would not become a believer unless you surrendered to the Imams and not object to their actions? Do you desire to see the place where Mu’awiyah will dwell and the place of my son Husain and of his murderer Yazid”?

I replied in the affirmative. Then the Prophet struck his foot onto the ground and it tore apart and another ground appeared beneath. Then I saw a river flowing, which also tore apart, underneath which was another ground. Thus seven layers of the ground and rivers ripped apart (one below the other) until there appeared hell. I saw that Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Mu’awiyah and Yazid were bound together in a chain alongwith the other rebellious Satans. And their torment was more severe than that of the other people of hell. Then the Holy Prophet commanded me to lift my head. I saw that the heavens had opened their doors and Paradise was apparent. Then all those blessed people who had descended from there returned back. When they were in the air the Prophet called out to Imam Husain,
“Come and mingle with me my dear Husain.”

I saw that Husain ascended too and joined them onto the high status in Paradise. The Holy Prophet then caught hold of the hand of Husain and told me,
“O Jabir! This son of mine is here alongwith me, submit to him and do not fall in doubt so as to become a believer.”

Jabir says that, “May both my eyes turn blind if whatever I have seen and related from the Prophet is false.”

Sheikh Abbas Qummi (RA)

Shaikh_QummiSheikh Abbas Qummi (RA): Author of the book
‘Mafateeh-ul-Jinan’(The Keys of Paradise)

By Gholamreza Goli Zavareh
Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) is one of the greatest scholars, researchers and narrators who in righteousness and self-sacrifice is an example of such self-made people who want to go further by means of development and guidance. He was brought up in a pious family and he himself embarked upon a thriving faith and spirituality, and due to his efforts in the path of piety and abstemiousness, the luminous heavenly-light enlightened his inner-self and had greatly affected his thought, behavior, mental and propagational efforts. His pious and mystical life is witness to such a claim.
The mystery of the success and popularity of this great scholar among the people, because of his book of supplications named Mafateeh-ul-Jinnan, is because faith and devotion were surging in the stream of his existence and had made his inner-self pure, pleasant and wholesome. Whatever he would write for others or speak of on the pulpit was the truth and came from the core of his heart, and before summoning others to the right path, he himself would practice what he preached.
He, with all his ability, like other Shi’a scholars, stood against the mean cultural customs, self-losing and intellectual conspiracies. He, enjoined the right and forbade the wrong and stood in the battlefield to fight the enemies of faith and with his piety and eloquent speech quenched the thirst of the learned scholars. 1
He, was familiar with the Qur’an from his childhood and when arriving at the verse:
“And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.” 2 – his whole body would shiver and he would whisper, saying: “How unaware and how far we are from the divine goal”. He was so particular about religious instructions that it seemed that all these instructions were specific to him and he believed that only performing the obligatory deeds is not sufficient to reach the peak of perfection, but performing the supererogatory and recommended prayers and the remembrance of Allah (SWT), supplications and prayers leads to the ultimate position and he himself was never ignorant of performing such recommended prayers and supplications. His son, Hajj Mirza Ali Muhadith Zadeh narrates: “As far as I can remember, my father never missed his prayers during the night, even during his journeys.” 3
With all his scholarly ranks and levels of piety and learning, he always showed humility and modesty and was weary of pride and fame and wanted to live a life of obscurity. He was respectful to all but mostly he paid particular respect to the Sadat scholars and people who were in some way the propagators of Ahlul-Bayt (AS) culture. When he entered a religious gathering, he would sit wherever he found a place and wouldn’t give priority to himself. Many a times he carried a book to the pulpit and narrated a hadith for the listeners. 4
The heritage left behind by this narrator, according to his son Hajj Mirza Ali Muhadith Zadeh is approximately 63 books about prayers, ethics, history and biographies. 5 But the late Muhammad Ali Tabrizi has listed 30 books by him, 6 and Khan Baba Mushar, 7 and Hassan Marsloand, 8 have listed about 50 books as the compilation work of Hajj Sheikh Qumi (RA), and at the same time Ali Dawani has introduced about 85 large and small books by Muhadith Qumi. 9 Among these books, the book, ‘Mafateeh-ul-Jinan wal Baqiat-ul-Salihat’ is the most famous and is used in most of the honored and holy places like mosques, Imam Zadehs, Hussainiyehs, and in the houses of the Shiites. Most of the narrated prayers, supererogatory and Ziyarat-e-Aimeh Athar, are collected in this book and are within the reach of the people interested in them. It can be said that these recommended and supererogatory prayers are the intellectual and mystic humming of the Shiites.
Qum is known as a holy city and the first Shiite Center in Iran. Its people at the end of the first Islamic era accepted the Wilayat of the Ahlul-Bayt (AS). The Shiites from the early times loved Islam and always took the lead to join firmly to the heavenly stars of Wilayat and Imamate and the people of Qum were the first to send ‘Khums’ for the A’imah. 10 Due to this familiarity and intellectual connection the teachings of the Ahlul-Bayt (AS) spread in this city and great scholars, narrators and jurist-consultants were trained and educated there, who made great efforts to make the beliefs of the people fruitful and give freedom to eminent values.
Qum is the house of the descendants of Imam Ali (AS), resting place of Sadat and a sacred place for the descendants of the Imams (AS). The people of Qum played a definitive role in the staging of religious revolts and political campaigns to abolish ignorance and despotism. The holy shrine of Fatima Masouma (SA) and many other theological and cultural centers for saving the religion and spreading of Islamic culture, have increased the intellectuality and holiness of this city and they have also added to its esteem and authority.
Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) blossomed in this city. He held special respect for his hometown and he felt proud wherever he heard the name of his city and this can be easily seen from the name of his books where ‘Qumi’ is a suffix that specifies his identity.
In the year 1294 (AH) in a house where the fragrance of the love of Imam Ali (AS) and his descendants reaches every human being who is eager for insight and knowledge, a baby is born and the sound of the baby’s cry blends with the exciting and rejoicing cries of the ladies present at the time of the baby’s delivery. All of them thank Allah (SWT), for the baby is healthy. They wrap the baby in a cloth and take him to his father. He takes the child in his arms and his eyes are full of love and satisfaction. He kisses the child and thanks Allah (SWT), and he prays for the baby and later in the presence of the relatives and friends, after completing all the customs, he names the baby ‘Abbas’.

 A mother’s humming:
Zainab the mother of the newborn had pledged to herself that at the time of feeding the baby, she would not be without ablution and she would feed the child in a state of cleanliness and purity. She practiced what she said and for two years she fed Abbas in the state of ablution. Due to this Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) would say: “The main reason of my success is due to my mother’s blessings, because that respected lady, within possible limits, fed me in the state of cleanliness and purity.” His mother had also said: “For two years when Abbas was fed by me, I don’t remember ever once feeding him without taking ablution.”
Zainab was a pious lady who endeavored in performing her religious obligations and even the supererogatory ones. She paid specific attention to the performance of the obligatory prayers at the ascribed times and it can be said for certain that the factors of success and a fruitful and bright future of Muhadith Qumi, a renowned personality of the Shiites was due to the upbringing and guidance of such a compassionate, religious and pious trainer.
Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) on many occasions remembered his mother’s kindness and favors and also pointed out to the listeners, thus: “My mother was a pious and righteous lady and one of her distinctions was that she never missed her prayers, offering them at the ascribed times.” 11
A peaceful environment, a warm embrace and humming full of emotions by this lady, all brought a healthy and suitable environment for Abbas’s development. The father also completely fulfilled the role of a worthy trainer in respect to his child. He worked with his child according to his development and made himself harmonized to his son’s world, and tried to answer all his emotional and material requirements.
In reality his existence was the source of peace of mind and closeness among the family members. His demeanor accompanied by pure motherly emotions, had transformed the environment of the house into a garden so that they witnessed the blossoming of the buds of their living garden.

Childhood Education:
Sheikh Abbas (RA) became acquainted with the Holy Qur’an from his early childhood and he would sleep with the pleasant sound of his father who would read from the revealed book. The days passed and this sapling grew in the garden where the stream of Wilayat was flowing and he could stand on his own feet. The house in which he was brought up was not a great distance away from the Shrine of Hazrat Fatima Masouma (SA), therefore, sometimes he would catch hold of his mother or father’s finger and walking with small steps which were the beginning of the bigger steps of the future, would make the trip for the Ziyarat of this great lady.
Although only a few years of his life had passed and it was time for him to stay at home and play with the children of his age group and be busy with other childish amusements, with his father’s guidance and together with his mother’s affection and guidance, Sheikh Abbas was sent to the ‘Maktab’ to learn Qur’an and the basic teachings of Islam.
This child who had acquired training from pious parents had special respect for his mother and father and above all he had a natural liking to learn the Qur’an. He paid attention to his trainers and went to the ‘Maktab’ to learn the verses of guidance and the self-building words of the Qur’an.
Sheikh Abbas with his friends, would go daily to the ‘Maktab’ except on Fridays, and in the evening he would play with children of his own age group. Before sunset he would return home and at that young age where prayers were not yet obligatory for him, he would take ablution and when his father would stand for prayers or go to the mosque to join the Jam’at, Abbas also accompanied him and performed his prayers in a childish manner. At night he would read the Qur’an and whilst reading verses, he felt peace and a special kind of pleasure. Abbas spent the days of his childhood in Qum in such a manner, 12 and then stepped into adolescence.
He had a weak body structure but had a strong soul, calm heart, magnanimous thoughts and extraordinary aspirations. His searching mind led him to find out about everything that came his way. Although he did not seem older than a child, he had a much older mental capacity. When speaking to elders and even with those of his own age group, he spoke so well that it seemed as if an experienced man was speaking. 13

Details of Interest and Desire:
Sheikh Abbas (RA) progressed so rapidly in acquiring religious education that he became famous in Qum. He was known as ‘Sheikh Abbas’ and he was described as a young religious person who had great Islamic knowledge. In other words, the local people of Qum knew that a young boy aged 20 was present in their city who was performing great acts, and apart from instructive and worthy sermons he was even compiling books. At the beginning of his 21st year, Sheikh Abbas’s first book was published in Qum and was not only a means of happiness for Sheikh and for his neighbors but he himself thanked Allah (SWT) for this success and tried much harder and wrote many other books. 14
Sheikh Abbas acquired knowledge of literature from Sheikh Abul-Qassim al-Kabit (RA) and Mirza Muhammad Arbab (RA) who were experts in this art. Sheikh Abbas, economically, was passing through straitened circumstances, therefore, he made use of Mirza Muhammad Arbab’s library. He had even made use of the presence of Hajj Agha Ahmed Tabatabai (RA). From his youth, he had an elegant writing and was fond of calligraphy and he learnt the different methodsof calligraphy like Naskh and Nastabeeq from the art teacher named Agha Sheikh Muhammad Hussain (RA). He acquired skills in the art of calligraphy to such an extent that his first book ‘Fawaid-ur-Rajabiyeh’ was written in his own handwriting and was printed in 1315 (AH). In the same year, at the end of the month of Safar, he transcribed 220 pages of Surah Yaseen by Mulla Sadra in Naskh calligraphy and at the end of this transcription, he has mentioned himself as a student of the lowest grade and the lowest creature on the earth. 15
Sheikh Abbas (RA) after completing the preliminary stage studies of ‘Hauza’ realized that the knowledge gained from Hauza-e-Qum did not satisfy him, therefore, in the year 1316 (AH) he took his possessions and started off for Najaf-e-Ashraf (in Iraq) to acquire more knowledge. There he came within the circle of the famous scholars and teachers of that great Hauza. 16
Because Sheik Abbas (RA) was very eager to know about the true narrators and he himself narrated about the Ahlul-Bayt (AS) from the beginning when he entered Najaf he was fascinated by a scholar named Hajj Mirza Hussain Noori Tabarsi and he would attend his classes. 17
The late Hajj Sheikh Abbas (RA) at the end of the book, Mafateeh-ul-Jinan writes: “It comes to an end and whatever had been prescribed has been added to this book on Sunday night, 10th Zhu al-Q’ada, 1344 (AH) and because on this day I received the news of my mother’s death, I request my Muslim brothers to make use of this book and I even request them to pray for my late mother, my father and me in their prayers in this world and hereafter.
1. Deedar ba Abrar, vol. 27 (Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas) Khaleel Abdullah Zadeh.
2. Sura Az-Zariyat, Verse 56.
3. Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas, p. 87.
4. Magazine Noor-e-Ilm, 2nd edition, No. 2, p. 124.
5. End of the translation Nafs-ul-Mahoom, by Agha-e-Ayatullah Shaibani.
6. Rehanat-ul-Adab, Mudarris Tabrizi, vol. 4, p. 487.
7. In the book, Muqalifeen-e-Kutub, vol. 3.
8. Zindagi name, Rijal wa Mashaheer-e-Iran, vol. 5, pp. 180-81.
9. Mufakhie-e-Islam, vol. 11, Chapter 2, Ali Diwani
10. Safeenat-ul-Bihar, Muhadith Qumi, vol. 2, p. 447.
11. Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi, Maed-e-Taqwa was Fazeelat, p. 35, Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas, p. 15; Sitaragan-e-Haram, vol. 4, p. 159.
12. Tareekh-e-Qum, Muhammad Hussain Nasir-ush-Sharieh, preface index and additions, p. 274.
13. Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas, p. 24.
14. Chehray-ha was Qisse-ha, Ali-e-Masoomi, p. 15.
15. Mufakhir-e-Islam, vol. 11, 1st part, p. 47.
16. Ullema-e-Muathir, Mulla Ali Waiz Khaybari, p. 181;
Tareekh-e-Qum, p. 274, and of the translation Nafs-ul-Mahoom, by Ali Muhadith Zadeh.
17. Ullema-e-Muathir, p. 181; Fawaid-ul-Razawiyeh.



(21 July 2012)

The Office of His Eminence Ayatullah Al-Udhma Seestani (long may he live) – in Najaf has issued a statement informing Momineen that the sighting of the Ramadhan moon crescent has been ascertained by His Eminence (long may he live) and that tomorrow Saturday is the first day of Ramadhan in Iraq and all Arab and nearby Islamic countries as well as African countries, Australia, New Zealand and North and South America.
As for the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and related European countries the first day of the blessed month of Ramadhan will be Sunday.
We ask Allah Almighty to let this be a month of goodness and blessings upon all Muslims for ‘He is All hearing and answers prayers.


Welcome: The Month of Ramadhan

30th day of Shaban is called Yamul Shak (doubtful day) if you do not receive news about Ramadan moonsighting on 29th evening or before the end of 30th day.
It is haram to fast on 30th Shaban with the niyat intention of 1st of Ramadan.
It is Mustahab to keep fast on 30th Shaban but the Niyyat (intention) should be either
(a) with the Niyyat of Mafiz-zimma (to discharge my responsibility), or
(b) with the Niyyat of any Qaza fast of previous Ramadan, if any, or
(c) with the Niyyat of Mustahab Shaban fast.
If you do a double Niyyat of fasting (i.e. 30th Shaban or 1st Ramadan), then such a Niyyat is wrong according Ayatullah Khui, but it is OK according to Ayt Khomeini and Ayt Seestani.
If you are fasting on 30th Shaban, and if, at any time on that day, you get the news of moon sighting of 29th Shaban, then you must immediately change Niyyat to Niyyat of 1st of Ramadan.
If you have fasted on 30th Shaban (with any Niyyat), and afterwards you come to know that it was 1st of Ramadan, then your fast will automatically be counted as fast of 1st of Ramadan.
If you are not fasting on 30th Shaban, then following actions are necessary on you:
(a) If you get the news after sunset of 30th Shaban or later that the moon had been actually sighted on evening of 29th Shaban, then you have to keep Qaza of 1st Ramadan after the month of Ramadan.
(b) If you get the news of moon sighting after Zawal time (Islamic mid-day), then it is haram to eat or drink or do anything, which is not allowed during fasting from that time onward until Iftar time on that day, and you have to do Qaza of 1st of Ramadan later on.
(c) If you get the news of moon sighting before Zawal time (Islamic mid-day), then
(i) if you have not eaten or drunk anything or done anything which breaks fast, you must immediately do the Niyyat of fasting of Ramadan for  that day,
(ii) if you have eaten or drunk something or have done anything which breaks fast, then you have to act as if fasting for the rest of the day, and then do Qaza of 1st of Ramadan later on.


(According to the FATAWA of Ayatullah Al-Uzma Seyyid Ali-Husaini Seestani Dama-Dhilluhu)

Compiled by Yusuf G. Kermalli


Fasting is a protection from the fire and the alms (zakaat) of the body,

and through it a servant enters Paradise.

The sleep of the person fasting is worship, his breath and his silence are glorification of Allah (tasbih), his actions are accepted and his supplication is answered.

The odor of his mouth, in the sight of Allah, the Exalted, is sweeter than the fragrance of musk.

The angels pray for him until he breaks his fast, and he has two joys – the joy when he breaks the            fast and the joy when he will meet Allah, the Exalted.                                                                  (Minhaaj Al-Salihin of Ayatullah Al-Sistani Dama-Dhilluhu) ___________________________________________________________________________________

FASTING ON “YAUMUL SHAK”                                      

(Doubtful whether it is the last day of Shaaban or the first day of Ramadhan)


If one doubts whether it is the last day of Sha’baan or the first day of Ramadhan then the fast on that day is not obligatory.   However, if one wants to fast on that day he cannot do so with the intention of observing the Ramadhan fast, but if he makes an intention that if it is Ramadhan then it is the Ramadhan fast  and if it is not Ramadhan then it is  qadha’ fast or some other fast like that, his fast will be valid.  But it is better to observe the fast with the intention of qadha’  fast or some other fast,and if it is known later that it was Ramadhan then it will automatically be Ramadhan fast.  And if he learns on the same day before Maghrib  that it is the first day of Ramadhan, then he should convert the intention to the Ramadhan fast.

If you are NOT fasting on the 30th day Shaaban, then you are required to act as follows:

  • If you get the news after sunset of 30th Shaaban or later that the moon was sighted on 29th Shaaban, then you have to keep qadha of 1st Ramadhan after the month of Ramadhan.
  • If you get the news of moon sighting after zawal time (Islamic mid-day), then you should observe precaution by abstaining from eating for the rest of the day with the intention of absolute nearness (qurbat), and perform its qadha after the month of Ramadhan.
  • If you get the news of moon sighting before zawal time (Islamic mid-day), then:

a)         if you have not eaten or drunk anything or done anything which breaks fast, you must      immediately do the niyyah of fasting of       Ramadhan for that day.

b)         if you have eaten or drunk something or have done anything which breaks fast, then you should observe precaution by abstaining from eating for the rest of the day with the intention      of absolute nearness (qurbat), and perform its qadha after that.






(a)           A person who cannot fast because of old age, or for whom fasting causes extreme hardship.  But in the latter case, he should give  one mudd  (¾ kg. [750 gms.] of food-stuff, like, wheat or barley or bread, etc.)  to a poor person for every fast.  However, if he becomes capable of fasting later, he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, give the qadha.


(b)           A person who suffers from a disease which causes excessive thirst, making it unbearable, or full of hardship.  But in the latter case, that is, hardship, he should give one  mudd of food to a poor person for every fast.  At the same time, as a recommended precaution, such a person may  not drink water in a quantity more than essential.  If he recovers later, enabling him to fast, then as a recommended precaution, he should give qadha.


Note:          Weakness is not a sufficient excuse for the permissibility of not fasting, even if excessive, unless it is distressing.  In that case breaking the fast is permissible and it is obligatory to perform its qadha after the month of Ramadhan.  Similarly if the weakness leads to the inability of doing the work necessary to earn one’s living and one is unable to do any other work, or if the worker cannot continue with the fast due to being overcome by thirst. It is necessarily more prudent for them to restrict their eating and drinking to the necessary amount and restrain themselves from eating more than necessary.


(c)           A woman who is in advanced stage of pregnancy, for whom fasting is harmful or for the child she carries.  For every day, however, she should give one mudd (3/4 kg. [750 gms.]) of food to poor.  In both the cases, she has to give qadha for the fasts left out.


(d)           If a woman is suckling a child and the quantity of her milk is small, and if fasting is harmful to her or to the child.  But she will give one mudd of food per day to poor.  In both the cases, she will later giveqadha  for the fasts left out.


Note:          This rule is specifically applicable in a circumstance where this is the only way of feeding milk to the child (as an obligatory precaution).  But if there is an alternative, like, when more than one woman offer to suckle the child, then establishing this rule is a matter of ishkal.


(e)           A woman who is in the state of Haidh or Nifas.  She has to give qadha for the fasts left out.


(f)            If a person knows that fasting is not harmful to him, he should fast and his fast will be valid even if his doctor advises him that it is harmful.  And if a person is certain or has a strong feeling that fasting is harmful to him, he should not fast even if the doctor advises for it.  He/she is required to give qadha for the fasts left out.


It is permissible to break the fast on the basis of a doctor’s statement, if it induces the presumption (zann) or possibility of harm resulting in actual fear.  If it is not so, then it is not permissible to break the fast based on his statement.  If the doctor says that there is no harm in fasting and the person under an obligation to fast is afraid, then it is permissible for him to break the fast.  In fact, it is obligatory if the suspected harm is to a forbidden degree.  Otherwise it is permissible for him to fast in the hope of divine acceptance (raja’), and to be content with it if it later becomes evident that it was not harmful.


Note:       It is permissible to give the fidya of several days of one month and several months to                             one person.

It is not sufficient to give the value of the redemption (fidya).  Rather, the goods must                             be given i.e. the food.






If the fast has been invalidated deliberately, then it makes no difference whether it was done by one who had knowledge of the rulings or was ignorant of them.  If a person intentionally and voluntarily commits an act  which invalidates fast, his/her fast becomes void and besides giving qadha, he/she is also  required to givekaffara.  However, if a person who is fasting eats or drinks something forgetfully, his/her fast remains valid.


3)         KAFFARAH


The kaffarah of leaving out a fast of Mahe Ramadhan intentionally without any shari’i valid excuse   is,     besides giving qadha of the missed fast, he is required to:

  1. free a slave, or
  2. fast for consecutively two months, or
  3. feed sixty poor people to their fill or give one mudd  (3/4 kg.) of food-stuff, like, wheat or barley or bread, etc. to each of them. For the Kaffarah it is not sufficient to feed one person twice or more, or to give him 2 mudd or more.  Rather it must be 60 people.


If a person breaks his/her fast with something haraam it is not obligatory for him/her to observe all the threekaffarah.  However, as a recommended precaution he/she should do so. The kaffarah of emancipating a slave is waived when it is no more possible.


Note:    If it is not possible for him/her to fulfill any of the above, he/she should give sadaqa according to his/her means and seek Divine forgiveness.  And the obligatory precaution is that he/she should give kaffarah as and when he/she is capable to do so.




(a)    Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, from the time of adhan forfajr prayers up to the time of adhan for maghrib prayers, avoid nine things for nearness to Allah, the Exalted (qurbatan ila’llāh).


(b)    It is not necessary for a person to pass the niyyat for fasting through his mind or to say that he would be fasting on the following day.  In fact, it is sufficient for him to decide that in obedience to the command of Allah he will not perform from the time of adhan for fajr prayers up to the time of adhan for maghrib prayers, any act which may invalidate the fast.  And in order to ensure that he has been fasting throughout this time he should begin abstaining earlier than  the time of adhan for fajr prayers, and continue to refrain for some time after the adhan  for maghrib prayers from acts which invalidate a fast.


(c)    A person can make niyyat every night of the holy month of  Ramadhan that he would be fasting on the following day, and it is better to make niyyat on the first night of Ramadhan that  he would fast throughout that month.


(d)    The last time for making niyyat to observe a fast of Ramadhan for a conscious person, is moments before the time of adhan for fajr prayers.


(e)    If a person sleeps before the time for fajr prayers in Ramadhan without making a niyyat, and wakes up before zuhr  to make a niyyat of fast, his fast will be in order.  But if he wakes up after Zuhr, as a precaution, he should continue with the abstinence with the niyyat of  qurbat  and then give its qadha’ also.




(f)     It is obligatory to continue the intention of fasting till the end of the day.  If somebody is undecided in his niyyat whether to break the fast or not in Ramadhan, or decides to do so, immediately his fast becomes invalid even if he does not actually break it or is repentant of his intention.


(g)    If a person makes a niyyat before the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers to observe a fast, and then goes to sleep, and wakes up after Maghrib his fast   is in order.


(h)    If a child reaches the age of puberty before the time of  adhan for fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan he/she should keep fast, and if he/she reaches the age puberty after the adhan for fajr prayers, the fast on that day is not obligatory for him/her.


(i)     If a patient recovers from his illness before zuhr in the month of Ramadhan, and if he has not done anything to invalidate the fast, he should make niyyat and fast.  But if he recovers after zuhr, it will not be obligatory on him to fast on that day.




There are nine acts which invalidate fasts:


(i)             Eating and drinking.

(ii)            Sexual intercourse.

(iii)           Istimna which means self abuse, resulting in ejaculation.

(iv)          Ascribing false things to Almighty Allah, or His Prophet or to the successors of the Holy Prophet.

(v)           Swallowing thick dust.

(vi)          Immersing one’s head completely in water according to the common opinion (among Jurists).

(vii)         Remaining in Janabat or Haidh or Nifas till the Adhan for Fajr prayers.

(viii)        Enema with liquids.

(ix)          Vomiting.


Details of these acts will be explained in the following articles:




(a)           If a person eats or drinks something intentionally, while being conscious of fasting, his fast becomes void, irrespective of whether the thing which he ate or drank was something normally eaten or drunk or whether it was small or large amount; even if a person, who is fasting, takes the tooth brush out of his mouth and then puts it back into his mouth, swallowing its liquid, his fast will be void, unless the moisture in the tooth brush mixes up with the saliva in such a way that it may no longer be called an external wetness.


(b)           If a person who is fasting eats or drinks something forgetfully, his fast does not become invalid but the moment he realizes he should immediately throw out the food or drink from his mouth.


(c)           If a person observing fast intentionally swallows something  which remained in between his teeth, his fast will be invalidated.


Note:          If a person knows that some particles of food  which has remained in between his teeth, will go down into his stomach during the day, then he must clean his teeth with toothpick.


(d)           Swallowing saliva does not invalidate a fast, although it may have collected in one’s mouth owing to thoughts about sour things, etc..



(e)           There is no harm in swallowing one’s phlegm or mucous from head and chest as long as it does not come up to one’s mouth.  However, if it reaches one’s mouth, the recommended precaution is that one should not swallow it.


(f)            Putting water in the mouth for gargling etc., in order to ease one’s thirst, and it happens to enter the stomach.  It necessitates qadha without kaffarah.  If one forgets and swallows the water, then there is no qadha.


Note:                            Brushing the teeth using toothpaste does not invalidate the fast as long as the person does not swallow the saliva that has mixed with the toothpaste.  However, the lingering flavor or taste of the paste that mixes with saliva does not affect the fasting.




(a)           Sexual intercourse invalidates the fast, even if the penetration of the male organ was only up to the point of circumcision, and even if there has been no ejaculation.


(b)           If a fasting person indulges in courtship without the intention of allowing semen to be discharged, and also, if he is sure that semen will not be discharged, his fast is in order, even if semen may be discharged unexpectedly.  However, if he is not sure about the discharge and it takes place, then his fast is void.


(iii)       ISTIMNA (self abuse, resulting in ejaculation).


(a)           If a person, who is observing fast, performs Istimna, his fast becomes void.


(b)           If a person involves himself in Istimna  with the intention of allowing semen to be discharged, even if he does not discharge, his fast will be void.


(c)           If semen is discharged from the body of a person involuntarily, his fast does not become void.





(a)           If a person who is observing fast, intentionally ascribes something false to Allah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) or his vicegerents (a.s.), verbally or in writing or by making a sign, his fast becomes void, even if he may at once retract and say that he has uttered a lie or may repent for it.  And, as a recommended precaution, he should refrain from imputing lies to Bibi Fatema Zahra (a.s.) and  the rest of the Prophets and their successors.


(b)           If a person quotes something as the word of Allah or of the Holy Prophet with the belief that it is true, but realizes later that it is false, his fast does not become void.




(a)           On the basis of obligatory   precaution, allowing thick dust to reach one’s throat makes one’s fast void, whether the dust is of something which is halal to eat, like flour, or something which is haraam to consume like dust or earth.


(b)           Allowing thin dust to reach one’s throat will not invalidate the fast.


(c)           As an obligatory precaution, a person who is observing fast, should not allow the smoke of cigarettes, tobacco, and other similar things to reach his throat.


(d)           Allergy sufferers are allowed to use an apparatus called “inhalator” to assist them in easy breathing.


(e)           Q]         Would the use of the nozzle spray that facilitates breathing invalidate the fast?

A]         If the spray that comes out of the nozzle enters respiratory tract and not the passage      of food and drink, it does not invalidate the fast.




(a)           If a fasting person intentionally immerses his entire head in the water, his fast is known to be void according to the common opinion (among Jurists), even if the rest of his body remains out of water.  But, according to the ruling of Ayatullah As-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu, this act does not invalidate the fast; it is an extremely makrooh act, and as a measure of precaution, should be avoided.


(b)           If a fasting person immerses his head under water with the niyyat of ghusl, both his fast and ghuslwill be in order.




Intentionally remaining in a state of Janabat until dawn.  What is more apparent is that it is specifically for the month of Ramadan and its Qadha fasts.  It does not impair other obligatory or    recommended fasts.


If a person in janabat does not take ghusl intentionally till the time of fajr prayers, his/her fast becomes void.  And if a person, whose obligation is to do tayammum, willfully does not do it, his/her fast will also be void.


(a)        If a person gets into the state of janabat during a night in the month of Ramadhan, and does       not take ghusl intentionally till the time left before Adhan is short, he/she should perform tayammum and observe the fast.  However, it is a recommended precaution that its qadha is also given.


(b)        If a person is in janabat during a night in Ramadhan and knows that if he goes to sleep he will      not wake up till fajr, he should not sleep before performing ghusl and if he sleeps without performing ghusl and does not wake up till fajr, his fast is void, and qadha and kaffarah become obligatory on him.


(c)        When a person in janabat goes to sleep in a night of Ramadhan and then wakes up, the   obligatory precaution is that if he is not sure about waking up again, he should not go to sleep        before performingghusl, even if he has a faint hope that he might wake up before fajr if he            sleeps again.


(d)        If a person in janabat in the night of Ramadhan feels certain or fairly hopeful that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before the time of fajr prayers, and is determined to do ghusl upon waking up, and oversleeps with that determination till the time of fajr prayers, his fast will be in order.


(e)        If a person in janabat sleeps and wakes up during a night of Ramadhan and  is certain or             fairly  hopeful that if he sleeps again, he will wake up before the time of fajr prayers, with full determination to do ghusl after waking up, and oversleeps till the time of fajr, he should      observe the qadha of the fast of that day.  And if he wakes up from his second sleep and      goes to sleep for the third time and does not wake up till the time of fajr prayers, it is      obligatory on him to observe the qadha as well as give thekaffarah, as a recommended precaution.


(f)         When a person becomes mohtalim during sleep, the first, second and third sleep means the        sleep after waking up; and the sleep in which he became mohtalim will not be reckoned to be            the first sleep.


(g)        If a person observing fast becomes mohtalim during day time, it is not obligatory on him to do   ghusl at once.


(h)        When a person wakes up in the month of Ramadhan after the fajr prayers and finds that he          has become mohtalim his fast is in order, even  if he knows that he became mohtalim before   the fajrprayers.


(i)         If a person whose obligation is tayammum after getting into the state of janabat, after     performing tayammum it is not necessary for him/her to stay awake till the time of fajr prayers.


(j)         A person who has touched a dead body can observe fast without having done ghusl for touching a dead body, and his fast does not become void even if he touches the dead body       during the fast.




(a)           If a woman becomes paak from haidh or nifas before the time of fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan and does not do ghusl  before fajr – or in the case of time being short, tayammum – intentionally, her fast will be void.


(b)           If a woman becomes paak  from haidh or nifas just near the time of fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan, and has no time left for ghusl or tayammum, her fast is valid.


(c)           If a woman becomes  paak from haidh or nifas after the fajr or if haidh or nifas begins during the day, even just before the maghrib time, her fast  is void.


(d)           If a woman forgets to do ghusl for haidh or nifas and remembers it after a day or more, the fasts that she has observed will be valid.


(e)           If a woman is in a sate of medium or excessive istihadha, her fast will be valid even if she does not carry out the rules of ghusls she is normally required to undertake when she is in the state of medium or excessive istihadha.


(viii)     ENEMA.


(a)           If liquid enema is taken by a fasting person, his fast becomes void even if he/she is obliged to take it for the sake of treatment. There is no harm in taking an enema with a dry substance but it is makruh to do so.


(ix)       VOMITING.


(a)           If a fasting person vomits intentionally his fast becomes void, though he may have been obliged to do so on account of sickness.  However, the fast does not become void, if one vomits forgetfully or involuntarily.


(b)           If a fasting person is certain that if he belches, something will come out from the throat, he should not, as a precaution, belch intentionally, but there is no harm in his belching if he is not certain about it.



(c)           If a fasting person belches and something comes from his throat into the mouth, he should throw it out, and if it is swallowed unintentionally, his fast is in order.  If he  swallows it voluntarily, his fast is invalid and he must give Kaffarah,




                        (a)        It is permissible to travel during the month of Ramadan, voluntarily, even if in order to escape fasting, but it is Makruh.


(b)        A traveler for whom it is obligatory to shorten a four rak’ats prayers to two rak’ats,          should not fast.  However, a traveler who offers full prayers, like, a person who is a traveler by profession or who goes on a journey for a haraam purpose, should fast while traveling.


(c)        If a person does not know that the fast of a traveler is invalid and observes fast while      journeying, and learns about the rule during the day, his fast becomes void, but if he does not learn about the rule till maghrib, his fast is valid.


(d)        If a person forgets that he is a traveler or forgets that the fast of a traveler is void,          and observes fast while journeying, his fast is invalid.


(e)        If a fasting person travels after zuhr, he should, as a precaution, complete his fast.


(f)         If a fasting person travels before zuhr and had an intention from the previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that day.  As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day even if he had no intention to travel from the previous night.


(g)        A traveler is not permitted to break his fast until he reaches the limit of Tarakhkhus. If he breaks it before that, knowing the rule, then it is obligatory for him to give the Kaffarah.


(h)        If a traveler reaches his hometown or a place where he intends to stay for ten days or      more before Zuhr, and if he has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, he should fast on that day.  But if he reaches after Zuhr, he cannot fast on that day.


Note:       What is apparent is that the beginning of the journey before or after Zawal, and similarly the return from the journey, is dependent on the town and not the limit of Tarakhkhus.  Yes, the traveler is not permitted to break his fast unless he reaches the limit of Tarakhkhus.  If he breaks it before that, knowing the rule, then it is obligatory for him to give the Kaffarah.




(a)        It is not obligatory to perform the Qada fasts immediately, although it is more prudent – commendably – not to delay performing the Qada of the month of Ramadan until the next Ramadan.

(b)        It is obligatory, according to what is more prudent, for the guardian of the deceased – the eldest son – to perform the Qadha fasts missed by his father due to an excuse, if the Qadha was obligatory for him.  This is if he was not incapable at the time of his death – due to insanity or being a minor.


Note:    As regards those fasts that the deceased missed intentionally or performed incorrectly, there is ishkal and in fact prohibition in attaching them to those missed by him due to an excuse.  If the deceased missed fasts whose Qadha is not obligatory for him, such as if he died during his illness, it is not necessary to perform the Qadha.


(c)        If a person misses all or some of the fasts of the month of Ramadan due to an illness, and that illness continues till the following Ramadan, his Qadha fasts are annulled.  Instead, he should give charity of one Mudd for each fast he missed.  But if he missed the fasts due to an excuse other than illness, the Qadha is obligatory on him and he must also give the redemption (fidya).  It is the same if the fasts have been missed due to illness and the excuse for the delay in performing the Qadha is travelling, and the reverse.


(d)        If the illness continues for 3 Ramadhans it is obligatory to give the fidya once for the first and once for the second.  So also if it continues for 4 Ramadhans it is obligatory to give a third time for the third Ramadan, and so on.


(e)         If a person, without any shari’i reason does not observe qadha of the fasts left out                         during Mahe Ramadhan  till next Ramadhan, then in addition to offering the qadha of the fasts he/she left , on the basis of obligatory precaution, he/she will give one mudd of food to poor for each fast left out.

Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem
InaLillahay Wa Ina Elehey Rajeyun!!
Verily we are from Allah and to Him do we return.

We regret to inform you of the sad demise of  Shauqat Husain Naqvi S/O Ibrahim Husain Naqvi who passed away Today Morning  10 Am 9th Nov  2010 ,Kanpur India.

Marhum will be buried in qabristan Kanpur today.Mo’mineen are requested to recite Surah Fatiha for the departed soul.

Request For Namaz e wahshat tonight shab e  10th Nov  2011.

Peace, Brotherhood and Humanity….

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