Question: The Almighty Allah says in Qur’an:
He is your Lord, who created the heavens and the earth in six days.1
Here what is meant by six days, when at that time day and night did not exist? And besides why Allah did not create them in one stroke?
Answer: This question is based on two parts. First that, what is meant by six days, whereas in the earlier age there were no day and night.
The reply is this that basically the word ‘Yawma’, synonymous in English to ‘a day’, which is having special meaning according to the place and situation at different times. Generally this word is used in the sense as a day, which is a proof of night. And in the Holy Qur’an also mostly it is used in the same meaning, but sometimes it comes in the meaning of a period, then on every period the word ‘Yawma’ is applied. For example, an aged person says:
One day I was a child – one day I was a young man also – but for today I have become old. Although these three periods are connected (linked) with each other like the links of a chain that is why he interprets those three different periods of his life with the word ‘day’.
Imam Ali (a.s.) says,
Age is not more than two days. One day it gives you benefit and the next day it is piercing loss on you.
It means that there are two periods in the life of man. One day he is on the highest point of his luck and the next day he is trapped in troubles and problems.
As per the statement of Bahadur Shah Zafar: “We brought four days, by asking increase in life. Two were spent in desires, two went in expectations.”
Without any doubt, by ‘day’ Zafar also meant ‘period’ only.
From whatever is stated above six days in which the earth and the heavens were created are six periods. The earth and the heavens before coming to the present states have passed through these six ages. Meaning the present mode of earth and the heavenly bodies is as the result of these continuous changes, which transpired on them, and in the end after passing through all those changes they have acquired the present form. Now it is possible that the duration of one period might have been 10 million years or 10 billion years.
The second part of the question is that why Allah did not create them all at one time and why their creation happened gradually?
The reply is that the world in which we live is a material world. And counting of gradual evolution of material existing things is done in inseparable narratives and material things by nature change from one shape to another with passing of time and in this way pass through different stages. As a result it becomes a perfect phenomenon and the earth and the heavens are not exempted from this law.
You see any materially existing thing; you will find that all of it is going up by the ladder of gradual evolution. Grass and plants after some time, take the shape of flowery bush or fruit bearing tree. As time passes mines and fountains hidden under the earth after a long chain of actions and reactions turn into material mines. Animals and humans until they do not finish a certain period in the womb cannot live their life in this vast world. This law is applicable everywhere and to every material thing of this world.
Question: What is the purpose of the Qur’an in pointing towards ‘seven heavens’?
Answer: Islamic scholars and commentators have narrated some clarifications regarding ‘seven heavens’ (towards which indication are made in the Holy Qur’an also).
1. Here by seven is meant to be multiplication (to be more). It means that He has created many heavens, i.e. He has created a number of times. And mostly it so happens that, in Arabic, Persian, Urdu or other languages, the mention of numbers is done in the sense of plenty. It means that a number is mentioned but no definite quantity is meant. The purpose of saying is to convey plenty.
For example, generally we say in Urdu that, I said this to you fifty times, or I have demanded from him ten times. However, it is not necessary that, the act should have been done for exactly fifty or ten times. But it is meant that I have said this many times or I have demanded that thing a number of times. The Holy Qur’an says about the word of Allah and the things known to Allah in this way:
“And were every tree that is in the earth (made into) pens and the sea (to supply it with ink), with seven more seas to increase it, the words of Allah would not come to an end…”1
It is obvious, here seven indicates excess, otherwise as we know, if there is an addition of ten or hundred oceans also, then too the unfathomed knowledge of Allah cannot be written, because Allah is by all means beyond words.
In the same way many other numbers ‘sabeen’ ‘seventy’, etc. also, are used in the sense of excess in the Holy Qur’an or other words (either in speech or writing) in Arabic and other languages. And the meaning of those numbers is not some definite number, but it is intended to point towards the excess of something.
2. By seven heavens it was meant to be those planets, which were known to the people of that period or they are those planets, which the general public of the present age can see with naked eyes.
3. By seven heavens are meant the multiple layers of different airs and gases that encircle the earth.
4. Still, according to the views of some great intellectuals, those small stars, galaxies and Milky Way, which are seen, all are part of the first heaven and beyond that six still bigger worlds are there. And by seven heavens the Holy Qur’an means all those seven worlds, which exist in the Universe.
May be man’s present age of scientific knowledge and wisdom has raised the curtain from only one of it, still it is quite possible that in future, as a result of gaining more knowledge, on the back of present perceptible world six great worlds are discovered. Favoring this view we present the following verse as proof.
“We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment, the stars,”2
With this verse it is known that, all the stars are in the first heaven. (It should be remembered that in Arabic the word ‘Duniya’ means ‘lower’ and near.)
However, it seems necessary to mention that verses and traditions in which the number of heavens are said to be seven are not a corroboration of the theory of Ptolemaic astronomy in which he has presented the heavens as the layers of peels of onion like shape of heavenly spheres. (Because according to Ptolemaic theory the number of heavenly spheres and heavens are nine).
As long as seven earths are concerned (the mention of which is there in the Holy Qur’an is an indication and in some traditions, is given with specific mention). About them thoughts similar to the aforesaid are expressed.
For example, that the number seven is in the sense of many or that by seven earths it is meant seven planets. (Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and moon). That is the same number in solar system, which we can see (no doubt, in solar system, there are other bodies and moon is also there but they cannot be seen with our naked eyes). And based on this explanation, by seven heavens is meant to be the same atmosphere, which exists on each of those seven heavenly bodies.
In other words, these seven bodies are counted as earth; the atmosphere surrounding them is their heaven. It should be remembered that in Arabic dictionary ‘Samaa’ is means all such things, which are placed towards the upper portion.
This was the summary of those different interpretations, which our scholars and writers of exegeses have presented about seven heavens and earths. Especially the last Tafseer, which seems to be more acceptable compared to all others and the narrations of those exegeses is in need of further explanation.
In the Name of God, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate
“And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; ”
(Quran, Surah Aal-i-Imraan (#3), Verse 103)
Iraq’s top Shia cleric has renewed his call for an end to sectarian violence in the country and for Sunni and Shia Muslims to unite. Ayatollah Ali Al-Sistani, the highest Shia authority in Iraq, called on Shia Muslims to defend the political and social rights of the Sunnis before defending their own rights. Sayyed Sistani’s calls for unity came as a delegation consisting of prominent Sunni scholars and leaders from across Iraq arrived at his office in the southern Iraqi city of Al-Najaf to further the cause of unity and promote collective efforts to defuse sectarian tension within Iraq. Under the title of “the first national conference of Shias and Sunnis” the event kicked off Tuesday with several leading Shia leaders such as; Ayatollah Mohammad Saeed Al-Hakim, Ayatollah Ishaq Al-Fayyadh and Ayatollah Bashir Al-Najafi, in attendance. Sayyed Sistani also warned against the plans of the enemies who wish to plant seeds of discord among Iraqis.
Iraq’s top Shia cleric has renewed his call for an end to sectarian violence
in the country and for Sunni and Shia Muslims to unite.
Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani’s calls for unity came as a group of Sunni
and Shia clerics met in the holy city of Najaf in a bid to stem violence in the
war-torn country. A delegation consisting of leading figures from the Sunni
Association of Muslim Scholars as well as prominent Sunni scholars and leaders
from across Iraq arrived at the office of Ayatollah Ali Al-Sistani in the southern
Iraqi city of Al-Najaf to further the cause of unity and promote collective
efforts to defuse sectarian tension within Iraq.
Under the title of “the first national conference of Shias and Sunnis” the event
kicked off Tuesday with several prominent Shia leaders including; Ayatollah Mohammad
Saeed Al-Hakim, Ayatollah Ishaq Al-Fayyadh and Ayatollah Bashir Al-Najafi, in
Ayatollah Al-Sistani, the highest Shia authority in Iraq, called on Shia Muslims
to defend the political and social rights of the Sunnis before defending their
“I am a servant of all Iraqis … I love everyone as religion is love … I
wonder how enemies could split between Islamic sects”, the statement said
“These meetings between the Shia and Sunni scholars are important and useful as
there are no real differences between Shias and Sunnis, yet there are
philological differences that exist even inside the same sect.
“We are united under one Kaaba, prayers and fasting.
“I am with all Iraqis when demanding their rights and will not prefer one to
another as Shias and Sunnis are equal.”
Meanwhile, chief of the southern Iraq branch of the Baghdad-based Association of
Muslim Scholars Khalid Al-Mulla hailed the conference as “a new opportunity for
exchanging views and unifying the ranks of Iraqi Sunnis and Shiites.” “We
believe that some major powers targeted the Iraqi national unity and used armed
groups such as Al-Qaeda, to perpetrate violent attacks against Samarra, Karbala,
Talafar and elsewhere,” he added.
Sayyed Sistani also warned those in attendance to guard against the plans of the
enemies who wish to plant seeds of discord among Iraqis.
The visiting delegation voiced their full support of Sayyed Sistani’s stance and announced the importance of the conference.
The Grand Ayatollah, Ali al-Sistani, during a meeting with a delegation of Sunni clerics from the southern governorates and the Kurdistan region and a representative of the Sunni Endowment, on the sidelines of the first national conference of religious scholars Shiites and Sunnis in Iraq to be held in the city of Najaf, issued Fatwa in sanctity of Iraqi blood in general and Sunni in particular, emphasized spilling the blood of Iraqis in general, and Sunnis in particular, is forbidden.
It is now some thirteen centuries that the politics of “holding the Qur’an upon a spear” has been more or less prevalent among the Muslims. It becomes especially rife among those who wish to profit from it whenever sanctimoniousness and exotericism increases and it becomes fashionable to display one’s piety and asceticism. There are two lessons to be learnt from this.
Firstly, whenever the ignorant, the unknowing and the uninformed put on a show of sanctity and piety, and people take them to be the symbol of the practicing Muslim, an excellent tool is available for unscrupulous schemers. Such schemers always turn these people into an instrument for their own ends, and make their presence a strong hindrance to the ideas of real reformers. It is quite common to see anti-Islamic elements making quite open use of this means, that is to say, setting the power of Islam itself to work against Islam. Western colonialism has had much experience in the use of this means, and has in its turn profited from deceitful arousal of the sentiments of the Muslims, especially in the field of the creation of schisms between them. What a disgrace it is when, for example, afflicted Muslims plan to drive out foreign influence, and then see the very people they wanted to save turn into a barrier in their path in the name, and under the banner, of religion. Indeed, if the masses of the people are ignorant and uninformed, hypocrites will use the fortress of Islam itself. In Iran, where the people have the honour to love and follow the Household of the Prophet (Ahlu’l-bayt), hypocrites are creating a fortress against the Qur’an, Islam and the Household of the Prophet to help the usurping Jews, out of the holy fortress of love of the House- hold of the Prophet, and in their sacred name, and this is the most abominable part of the injustice against Islam, the Qur’an, the Prophet and his Household. The Prophet said:
I am not anxious about the incursion of poverty among my community; that about which I am afraid for them is crooked thinking. That which poverty of thought will bring my community is much worse than that which economic poverty will bring them.
Secondly, we must try to make our methodology of derivation from the Qur’an a true one. The Qur’an is a leader and a guide when it is subjected to true reflection, when it is interpreted wisely, when guidance is taken from the people who really know the Qur’an, who are firmly rooted in the sciences of the Qur’an. As long as our methodology is wrong, and as long as we do not learn how to benefit from the Qur’an, we shall not drive any profit from it. Profiteers or ignorant people sometimes read the Qur’an, and then follow up an incorrect possibility. Just as you have probably heard in the words of Nahjul Balaghah ” they say the word “truth”, and then set their minds of falsehood ! ” This is not practicing the Qur’an or bringing it to life, this is putting it to death. The Qur’an is put into practice when it is understood with a true understanding.
The Qur’an always presents its project in a general and fundamental form, but the deduction and harmonization of the particular to the universal depends on our correct understanding and conceptualization. For example, we do not find written in the Qur’an that in a war that took place on a certain day between ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah, ‘Ali was in the right; all we find in the Qur’an is that;
If two parties of believers fight, put things right between them; then, if one of them is insolent against the other, fight the insolent one till it reverts to Allah’s commandment. (al-Hujarat, 49 – 9)
This is the Qur’an and its way of explanation; but it does not say in such-and-such a war so-and-so was in the right and the other was in the wrong.
The Qur’an does not spell out names; it does not say: after forty years, more or less, a man called Mu’awiyah will appear who will fight with ‘Ali, and you should fight in that war for ‘Ali. And neither should it enter into particulars. The Qur’an’s task is not to make a list of subjects and point out which is right and which is wrong; such a thing would be impossible. The Qur’an came to stay for ever, so it has to make fundamental and universal things clear, so that falsehood can take its place face to face with truth in every age and people can act according to the criterion of these universalities. It is therefore a duty for people to open their eyes to the basic advice: “of two parties of believers fight. . .”, and distinguish between the party doing the terrorizing and the one that is being terrorized; and to accept if the unruly party ceases to be unruly. But if they stop, and try to be cunning so as to save themselves from defeat, and prepare themselves for a new attack, and become unruly again, and, in the words of the Qur’an, “if one of them is insolent against the other”, be firm, and do not give way to their cunning.
It is up to the people themselves to discriminate in all these matters. The Qur’an seeks that the Muslims should be intellectually and socially mature, and a necessary consequence of such intellectual maturity is the ability to differentiate between the just man and the unjust man. The Qur’an did not come to be always for people like a guardian over a juvenile, to carry out the particular details of their lives like a personal protector, and to specify each special case by a material sign and indicator.
Actually, knowing people, the degree of their competence, the limits to their fitness for, and relationship to, Islam and Islamic realities is itself a duty, and frequently we neglect this duty.
‘Ali, may peace be upon him, said:
You will never know truth and follow the right way unless you know the person who has abandoned it.
Knowing the principles and the generalities is alone not enough unless their correspondence and reference to particulars has been found, for it is possible that, through an error of judgement concerning persons and individuals or through ignorance of the situation, one will act in the name of truth and Islam and under the banner of Islam against Islam and truth and for falsehood.
Injustice and the unjust, justice and the just are mentioned in the Qur’an, but their applications must be sought out. We must not mistake injustice and justice for injustice, and then cut off the head of justice and truth in the name of what we imagine to be a universal principle and the judgement of the Qur’an.
Refreence: Polarization around the Character of Ali ibn Abi Talib, by Murtaza Mutahhari. W.O.F.I.S World Organization For Islamic Services, Tehran – Iran.
Approximately 35 animals have been named in the Quran; the birds and insects of which are:
Salwa (سلوی)=The quail (Baqarah:57), Ba’uth (بعوض)=Mosquito (Baqarah:26), Dhubab (ذباب)=Fly (Hajj:73), Nahl (نحل)=Honeybee (Nahl:68), Ankabut (عنکبوت)=Spider (Ankabut:41), Jarad (جراد)=Grasshopper (A’raf:133), HudHud (هدهد)=Hoopoe (Naml:20), Ghurab (غراب)=Crow (Ma’idah:31), Ababil (ابابیل)= probably ‘Swallow’ (Fil:3), Naml (نمل)=Ant (Naml:18), Farash (فراش)=Butterfly (Al-Qari’ah), Qummal (قمّل)=Flea (A’raf:133).
Also, other animals have been mentioned in the Quran which are as follows:
Qirdah (قرده)=Monkey (Baqarah:65), Bighal (بغال)=Mule (Nahl:16), Ghanam/Na’jah/Dha’n/Ma’z (غنم/نعجه/ضأن/معز)=Sheep (An’am:143-146 and Sad:23-24), Dhi’b (ذئب)=Wolf (Yusuf:15), Ba’ir (بعیر) and Jamal (جمل)=Camel (Yusuf:65; A’raf:40…), Qaswarah (قسورة)=Lion (Muddathir:51), Kheyl (خیل)/Jiyad (جیاد)(plural of جواد)/Safinat (صافنات)(plural of صافنة)=Horse (Nahl:8; Sad:51), Baqar (بقر)=Cow (Baqarah:70), Ijl (عجل)=Calf (Hud:69), Hayyah (حیة)=Snake (Taha:20), Thu’ban (ثعبان)=Python (A’raf:107), Himar/Hamir (حمار/حمیر)=Donkey (Nahl:8; Baqarah:259), Khinzir (خنزیر)=Pig (Baqarah:173), Kalb (کلب)=Dog (A’raf:176), Nun/Hut (نون/حوت)=Fish (Anbiya:87; Kahf:63), Dhafadi’ sin. Dhifda’ (ضفادع)=Frog (A’raf:133), Fil (فیل)=Elephant (Fil:1). The Quran has also mentioned the names of different types of camels such as: بحیره/سائب/حام/وصیله (Ma’idah:103).
By Gholamreza Goli Zavareh
Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) is one of the greatest scholars, researchers and narrators who in righteousness and self-sacrifice is an example of such self-made people who want to go further by means of development and guidance. He was brought up in a pious family and he himself embarked upon a thriving faith and spirituality, and due to his efforts in the path of piety and abstemiousness, the luminous heavenly-light enlightened his inner-self and had greatly affected his thought, behavior, mental and propagational efforts. His pious and mystical life is witness to such a claim.
The mystery of the success and popularity of this great scholar among the people, because of his book of supplications named Mafateeh-ul-Jinnan, is because faith and devotion were surging in the stream of his existence and had made his inner-self pure, pleasant and wholesome. Whatever he would write for others or speak of on the pulpit was the truth and came from the core of his heart, and before summoning others to the right path, he himself would practice what he preached.
He, with all his ability, like other Shi’a scholars, stood against the mean cultural customs, self-losing and intellectual conspiracies. He, enjoined the right and forbade the wrong and stood in the battlefield to fight the enemies of faith and with his piety and eloquent speech quenched the thirst of the learned scholars. 1
He, was familiar with the Qur’an from his childhood and when arriving at the verse:
“And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.” 2 – his whole body would shiver and he would whisper, saying: “How unaware and how far we are from the divine goal”. He was so particular about religious instructions that it seemed that all these instructions were specific to him and he believed that only performing the obligatory deeds is not sufficient to reach the peak of perfection, but performing the supererogatory and recommended prayers and the remembrance of Allah (SWT), supplications and prayers leads to the ultimate position and he himself was never ignorant of performing such recommended prayers and supplications. His son, Hajj Mirza Ali Muhadith Zadeh narrates: “As far as I can remember, my father never missed his prayers during the night, even during his journeys.” 3
With all his scholarly ranks and levels of piety and learning, he always showed humility and modesty and was weary of pride and fame and wanted to live a life of obscurity. He was respectful to all but mostly he paid particular respect to the Sadat scholars and people who were in some way the propagators of Ahlul-Bayt (AS) culture. When he entered a religious gathering, he would sit wherever he found a place and wouldn’t give priority to himself. Many a times he carried a book to the pulpit and narrated a hadith for the listeners. 4
The heritage left behind by this narrator, according to his son Hajj Mirza Ali Muhadith Zadeh is approximately 63 books about prayers, ethics, history and biographies. 5 But the late Muhammad Ali Tabrizi has listed 30 books by him, 6 and Khan Baba Mushar, 7 and Hassan Marsloand, 8 have listed about 50 books as the compilation work of Hajj Sheikh Qumi (RA), and at the same time Ali Dawani has introduced about 85 large and small books by Muhadith Qumi. 9 Among these books, the book, ‘Mafateeh-ul-Jinan wal Baqiat-ul-Salihat’ is the most famous and is used in most of the honored and holy places like mosques, Imam Zadehs, Hussainiyehs, and in the houses of the Shiites. Most of the narrated prayers, supererogatory and Ziyarat-e-Aimeh Athar, are collected in this book and are within the reach of the people interested in them. It can be said that these recommended and supererogatory prayers are the intellectual and mystic humming of the Shiites.
Qum is known as a holy city and the first Shiite Center in Iran. Its people at the end of the first Islamic era accepted the Wilayat of the Ahlul-Bayt (AS). The Shiites from the early times loved Islam and always took the lead to join firmly to the heavenly stars of Wilayat and Imamate and the people of Qum were the first to send ‘Khums’ for the A’imah. 10 Due to this familiarity and intellectual connection the teachings of the Ahlul-Bayt (AS) spread in this city and great scholars, narrators and jurist-consultants were trained and educated there, who made great efforts to make the beliefs of the people fruitful and give freedom to eminent values.
Qum is the house of the descendants of Imam Ali (AS), resting place of Sadat and a sacred place for the descendants of the Imams (AS). The people of Qum played a definitive role in the staging of religious revolts and political campaigns to abolish ignorance and despotism. The holy shrine of Fatima Masouma (SA) and many other theological and cultural centers for saving the religion and spreading of Islamic culture, have increased the intellectuality and holiness of this city and they have also added to its esteem and authority.
Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) blossomed in this city. He held special respect for his hometown and he felt proud wherever he heard the name of his city and this can be easily seen from the name of his books where ‘Qumi’ is a suffix that specifies his identity.
In the year 1294 (AH) in a house where the fragrance of the love of Imam Ali (AS) and his descendants reaches every human being who is eager for insight and knowledge, a baby is born and the sound of the baby’s cry blends with the exciting and rejoicing cries of the ladies present at the time of the baby’s delivery. All of them thank Allah (SWT), for the baby is healthy. They wrap the baby in a cloth and take him to his father. He takes the child in his arms and his eyes are full of love and satisfaction. He kisses the child and thanks Allah (SWT), and he prays for the baby and later in the presence of the relatives and friends, after completing all the customs, he names the baby ‘Abbas’.
A mother’s humming:
Zainab the mother of the newborn had pledged to herself that at the time of feeding the baby, she would not be without ablution and she would feed the child in a state of cleanliness and purity. She practiced what she said and for two years she fed Abbas in the state of ablution. Due to this Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) would say: “The main reason of my success is due to my mother’s blessings, because that respected lady, within possible limits, fed me in the state of cleanliness and purity.” His mother had also said: “For two years when Abbas was fed by me, I don’t remember ever once feeding him without taking ablution.”
Zainab was a pious lady who endeavored in performing her religious obligations and even the supererogatory ones. She paid specific attention to the performance of the obligatory prayers at the ascribed times and it can be said for certain that the factors of success and a fruitful and bright future of Muhadith Qumi, a renowned personality of the Shiites was due to the upbringing and guidance of such a compassionate, religious and pious trainer.
Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi (RA) on many occasions remembered his mother’s kindness and favors and also pointed out to the listeners, thus: “My mother was a pious and righteous lady and one of her distinctions was that she never missed her prayers, offering them at the ascribed times.” 11
A peaceful environment, a warm embrace and humming full of emotions by this lady, all brought a healthy and suitable environment for Abbas’s development. The father also completely fulfilled the role of a worthy trainer in respect to his child. He worked with his child according to his development and made himself harmonized to his son’s world, and tried to answer all his emotional and material requirements.
In reality his existence was the source of peace of mind and closeness among the family members. His demeanor accompanied by pure motherly emotions, had transformed the environment of the house into a garden so that they witnessed the blossoming of the buds of their living garden.
Sheikh Abbas (RA) became acquainted with the Holy Qur’an from his early childhood and he would sleep with the pleasant sound of his father who would read from the revealed book. The days passed and this sapling grew in the garden where the stream of Wilayat was flowing and he could stand on his own feet. The house in which he was brought up was not a great distance away from the Shrine of Hazrat Fatima Masouma (SA), therefore, sometimes he would catch hold of his mother or father’s finger and walking with small steps which were the beginning of the bigger steps of the future, would make the trip for the Ziyarat of this great lady.
Although only a few years of his life had passed and it was time for him to stay at home and play with the children of his age group and be busy with other childish amusements, with his father’s guidance and together with his mother’s affection and guidance, Sheikh Abbas was sent to the ‘Maktab’ to learn Qur’an and the basic teachings of Islam.
This child who had acquired training from pious parents had special respect for his mother and father and above all he had a natural liking to learn the Qur’an. He paid attention to his trainers and went to the ‘Maktab’ to learn the verses of guidance and the self-building words of the Qur’an.
Sheikh Abbas with his friends, would go daily to the ‘Maktab’ except on Fridays, and in the evening he would play with children of his own age group. Before sunset he would return home and at that young age where prayers were not yet obligatory for him, he would take ablution and when his father would stand for prayers or go to the mosque to join the Jam’at, Abbas also accompanied him and performed his prayers in a childish manner. At night he would read the Qur’an and whilst reading verses, he felt peace and a special kind of pleasure. Abbas spent the days of his childhood in Qum in such a manner, 12 and then stepped into adolescence.
He had a weak body structure but had a strong soul, calm heart, magnanimous thoughts and extraordinary aspirations. His searching mind led him to find out about everything that came his way. Although he did not seem older than a child, he had a much older mental capacity. When speaking to elders and even with those of his own age group, he spoke so well that it seemed as if an experienced man was speaking. 13
Details of Interest and Desire:
Sheikh Abbas (RA) progressed so rapidly in acquiring religious education that he became famous in Qum. He was known as ‘Sheikh Abbas’ and he was described as a young religious person who had great Islamic knowledge. In other words, the local people of Qum knew that a young boy aged 20 was present in their city who was performing great acts, and apart from instructive and worthy sermons he was even compiling books. At the beginning of his 21st year, Sheikh Abbas’s first book was published in Qum and was not only a means of happiness for Sheikh and for his neighbors but he himself thanked Allah (SWT) for this success and tried much harder and wrote many other books. 14
Sheikh Abbas acquired knowledge of literature from Sheikh Abul-Qassim al-Kabit (RA) and Mirza Muhammad Arbab (RA) who were experts in this art. Sheikh Abbas, economically, was passing through straitened circumstances, therefore, he made use of Mirza Muhammad Arbab’s library. He had even made use of the presence of Hajj Agha Ahmed Tabatabai (RA). From his youth, he had an elegant writing and was fond of calligraphy and he learnt the different methodsof calligraphy like Naskh and Nastabeeq from the art teacher named Agha Sheikh Muhammad Hussain (RA). He acquired skills in the art of calligraphy to such an extent that his first book ‘Fawaid-ur-Rajabiyeh’ was written in his own handwriting and was printed in 1315 (AH). In the same year, at the end of the month of Safar, he transcribed 220 pages of Surah Yaseen by Mulla Sadra in Naskh calligraphy and at the end of this transcription, he has mentioned himself as a student of the lowest grade and the lowest creature on the earth. 15
Sheikh Abbas (RA) after completing the preliminary stage studies of ‘Hauza’ realized that the knowledge gained from Hauza-e-Qum did not satisfy him, therefore, in the year 1316 (AH) he took his possessions and started off for Najaf-e-Ashraf (in Iraq) to acquire more knowledge. There he came within the circle of the famous scholars and teachers of that great Hauza. 16
Because Sheik Abbas (RA) was very eager to know about the true narrators and he himself narrated about the Ahlul-Bayt (AS) from the beginning when he entered Najaf he was fascinated by a scholar named Hajj Mirza Hussain Noori Tabarsi and he would attend his classes. 17
The late Hajj Sheikh Abbas (RA) at the end of the book, Mafateeh-ul-Jinan writes: “It comes to an end and whatever had been prescribed has been added to this book on Sunday night, 10th Zhu al-Q’ada, 1344 (AH) and because on this day I received the news of my mother’s death, I request my Muslim brothers to make use of this book and I even request them to pray for my late mother, my father and me in their prayers in this world and hereafter.
1. Deedar ba Abrar, vol. 27 (Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas) Khaleel Abdullah Zadeh.
2. Sura Az-Zariyat, Verse 56.
3. Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas, p. 87.
4. Magazine Noor-e-Ilm, 2nd edition, No. 2, p. 124.
5. End of the translation Nafs-ul-Mahoom, by Agha-e-Ayatullah Shaibani.
6. Rehanat-ul-Adab, Mudarris Tabrizi, vol. 4, p. 487.
7. In the book, Muqalifeen-e-Kutub, vol. 3.
8. Zindagi name, Rijal wa Mashaheer-e-Iran, vol. 5, pp. 180-81.
9. Mufakhie-e-Islam, vol. 11, Chapter 2, Ali Diwani
10. Safeenat-ul-Bihar, Muhadith Qumi, vol. 2, p. 447.
11. Hajj Sheikh Abbas Qumi, Maed-e-Taqwa was Fazeelat, p. 35, Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas, p. 15; Sitaragan-e-Haram, vol. 4, p. 159.
12. Tareekh-e-Qum, Muhammad Hussain Nasir-ush-Sharieh, preface index and additions, p. 274.
13. Muhadith Qumi, Hadith-e-Ikhlas, p. 24.
14. Chehray-ha was Qisse-ha, Ali-e-Masoomi, p. 15.
15. Mufakhir-e-Islam, vol. 11, 1st part, p. 47.
16. Ullema-e-Muathir, Mulla Ali Waiz Khaybari, p. 181;
Tareekh-e-Qum, p. 274, and of the translation Nafs-ul-Mahoom, by Ali Muhadith Zadeh.
17. Ullema-e-Muathir, p. 181; Fawaid-ul-Razawiyeh.